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Integrated Vehicle Control SystemsIntegrated Vehicle Control Systems
Vehicle Chassis SystemsVehicle Chassis Systems
Contro...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
• IntroductionIntroduction
• Systems IntegrationSystems Integration
• Subsumption Archit...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
• Safety
• Predictable behaviour
• Responsive Handling
• Ride Comfort
• Maximise efficie...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
OEMOEMRequirementsRequirements
Based on car type/OEM requirements
select required system...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
Whole Vehicle Objectives
Braking Steering
Suspension Powertrain
6 D.O.F
Longitudinal
Lat...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
• Braking Systems - ABS, TRC
• Steering - AFWS, 4WS
• Suspension - Active, Semi-active, ...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
• Modular
• Respect IPR of suppliers
• Avoid excessive complexity
• Incorporate fault de...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
Subsumption ArchitectureSubsumption Architecture
Sensors
S
T
I
M
U
L
U
S
C
O
O
R
D
I
N
A...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
• Distributed Layered Control
– Control distributed across parallel layers each with mul...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
SubsumptionSubsumption
Advantages
• Modular
• Very flexible
• Robust to system change
• ...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
Collision
Avoidance
Straight
Line
Stability
Neutral
Steer
Parking
Aid
Safety
Distance
fr...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
Sensors
(physical)
Sensors
(Soft)
State Estimation/
Observers
Near Traffic
Condition
Dri...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
Behaviour 4
Behaviour 3
Behaviour 2
Behaviour 1
ACTION
MAX (B1, B2,B3,B4)
Behaviour 4
Be...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
Scope for Integration - ActuationScope for Integration - Actuation
• 4 Independent Brake...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
• Stiff suspension model - nonlinear tyre model
• 7 DOF: Yaw, Sideslip, Longitudinal, Wh...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
• Integrated Systems
• Non-integrated control
Driver
Throttle
Brake Input
Steer Angle
In...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
time [s]
speed[m/s]
Vehicle Forwar...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
-200
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
200
time [s]
beta[o
]
Vehicl...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
time [s]
beta[o
]
Vehicle Side Slip An...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
time [s]
delta[o
]
Steer Angle
noctrl...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
-2.5
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
time [s]
r[rad/s]
Yaw Rate
noct...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
time [s]
a
lat
[m/s2
]
Lateral Acceler...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
Integrated Vehicle Control System
• Technical and commercial considerations restrict the
ways that integrated vehicle cont...
Integrated Vehicle Control System
Any Questions ?Any Questions ?
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Integrated chassis control Brakenet 2002

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Presentation on Vehicle Chassis Systems Control and Integration at Brakenet, England, 2002

Published in: Automotive, Business, Technology
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Integrated chassis control Brakenet 2002

  1. 1. Integrated Vehicle Control SystemsIntegrated Vehicle Control Systems Vehicle Chassis SystemsVehicle Chassis Systems ControlControl andand IntegrationIntegration September, 2002September, 2002 Dr. Mark N.W. HowellDr. Mark N.W. Howell
  2. 2. Integrated Vehicle Control System • IntroductionIntroduction • Systems IntegrationSystems Integration • Subsumption ArchitectureSubsumption Architecture • ExamplesExamples • ConclusionsConclusions Presentation OutlinePresentation Outline
  3. 3. Integrated Vehicle Control System • Safety • Predictable behaviour • Responsive Handling • Ride Comfort • Maximise efficiency & performance of the vehicle • Flexibility, modular, ‘plug and play’ architecture IntroductionIntroduction
  4. 4. Integrated Vehicle Control System OEMOEMRequirementsRequirements Based on car type/OEM requirements select required systems for interaction Brand DNA Product Differentiation Performance FeelPerformance Feel Ease of UseEase of Use ReliabilityReliability IntegrityIntegrity SafetySafety ComfortComfort
  5. 5. Integrated Vehicle Control System Whole Vehicle Objectives Braking Steering Suspension Powertrain 6 D.O.F Longitudinal Lateral Bounce Pitch Roll Yaw Characteristics Safe Predictable Responsive Handling Ride ComfortNVH, Energy, Reliability, Cost ...
  6. 6. Integrated Vehicle Control System • Braking Systems - ABS, TRC • Steering - AFWS, 4WS • Suspension - Active, Semi-active, Roll Control • Drivetrain - Differential/ IVT/CVT • + Cruise Control, Intelligent/Adaptive Cruise Control • Yaw moment control, X-by-wire • Future systems: Collision Avoidance, Parking • Need a coherent way of integrating systems The Need for IntegrationThe Need for Integration
  7. 7. Integrated Vehicle Control System • Modular • Respect IPR of suppliers • Avoid excessive complexity • Incorporate fault detection, diagnosis and tolerance • Open architecture Design RequirementsDesign Requirements
  8. 8. Integrated Vehicle Control System Subsumption ArchitectureSubsumption Architecture Sensors S T I M U L U S C O O R D I N A T I O N O Actuators Behaviour 1 Behaviour 2 Behaviour n A modular, behaviour based, distributed architecture Behaviours are layers of control architectures that are event driven One layer can subsume control over another layer Higher level behaviour can suppress a lower-level behaviour.
  9. 9. Integrated Vehicle Control System • Distributed Layered Control – Control distributed across parallel layers each with multiple modules • Behavioural Decomposition – different layers support different ‘task-achieving’ behaviours’ – decomposes into behavioural rather than function units • Increasing ‘Levels of competence’ – Ascending level adds capabilities resulting in higher overall competence. – Higher levels often operate by modulating the activities of lower levels. • Incremental Construction – incremental control system designing – intermediate architecture tested and debugged before next layer added. • Conflict resolution and communication between levels – Higher layers subsume the roles of lower ones by suppressing their outputs and substituting their own. Key Aspects of SubsumptionKey Aspects of Subsumption
  10. 10. Integrated Vehicle Control System SubsumptionSubsumption Advantages • Modular • Very flexible • Robust to system change • Incremental control design Disadvantages • Complex overall system with a large number of behaviours • Verification difficult of overall system behaviour
  11. 11. Integrated Vehicle Control System Collision Avoidance Straight Line Stability Neutral Steer Parking Aid Safety Distance from Obstacles Anti - Dive Anti - Squat Yaw Stability Roll Stability Ride Comfort Load Transfer Forward Speed Layer 4 Behaviour Layer 3 Behaviour Layer 2 Behaviour Layer 1 Behaviour Layer 0 Hardware ABS TCS Side Slip Control Controllable Suspension Driver SensorandInformationBus Integrated Layers Non Integrated Layers (mostly single loop) Lane Detection and Tracking Brakes Engine Transmission Suspension Steering Subsumption SubsystemsSubsumption Subsystems
  12. 12. Integrated Vehicle Control System Sensors (physical) Sensors (Soft) State Estimation/ Observers Near Traffic Condition Driver Model True Vehicle Model 'Desired' Vehicle Model Road Condition Estimation Bahaviours Lane Detection Sensor and Information BusSensor and Information Bus
  13. 13. Integrated Vehicle Control System Behaviour 4 Behaviour 3 Behaviour 2 Behaviour 1 ACTION MAX (B1, B2,B3,B4) Behaviour 4 Behaviour 3 Behaviour 2 Behaviour 1 ACTION Respond of highest active behaviour Response of behaviour with the highest activation signal Behaviour 4 Behaviour 3 Behaviour 2 Behaviour 1 ACTION Voting based (Neural) Behaviour 4 Behaviour 3 Behaviour 2 Behaviour 1 ACTION Fuzzy Rule based (A) (B) (C) (D)
  14. 14. Integrated Vehicle Control System Scope for Integration - ActuationScope for Integration - Actuation • 4 Independent Brake 4 • Engine 1+(...) • Driveline (Transmission/differential) 1,2+ • Individual Wheel Steering 4 • Active Suspension 4 Total : 15+
  15. 15. Integrated Vehicle Control System • Stiff suspension model - nonlinear tyre model • 7 DOF: Yaw, Sideslip, Longitudinal, Wheel spin + Control States • Independent wheel braking • Rudimentary Powertrain (torque demand) • Active Front Wheel Steer Simple StudySimple Study
  16. 16. Integrated Vehicle Control System • Integrated Systems • Non-integrated control Driver Throttle Brake Input Steer Angle Input Brake torque Front Steer Angle Throttle Low ‘ABS’ Independent Wheel Slip Control Front Slip angle control Yaw/ Sideslip Control Directional Control HighIntermediate Vehicle Simple study - levels of behaviourSimple study - levels of behaviour
  17. 17. Integrated Vehicle Control System 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 time [s] speed[m/s] Vehicle Forward Speed noctrl S sigma S beta10S allS
  18. 18. Integrated Vehicle Control System 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 time [s] beta[o ] Vehicle Side Slip Angle noctrl S sigma S beta10 S all S
  19. 19. Integrated Vehicle Control System 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 time [s] beta[o ] Vehicle Side Slip Angle noctrl S sigma S beta10 S all S
  20. 20. Integrated Vehicle Control System 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 time [s] delta[o ] Steer Angle noctrlS sigma S beta10 S all S
  21. 21. Integrated Vehicle Control System 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 time [s] r[rad/s] Yaw Rate noctrl S sigma S beta10 S all S
  22. 22. Integrated Vehicle Control System 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 time [s] a lat [m/s2 ] Lateral Acceleration noctrl S sigma S beta10 S all S
  23. 23. Integrated Vehicle Control System
  24. 24. Integrated Vehicle Control System • Technical and commercial considerations restrict the ways that integrated vehicle control systems are implemented in practice • Limiting total system complexity is a priority • Layered ‘subsumption’ architectures are particularly applicable to the control implementation, but detailed methodologies are not yet well developed • Issues of conflict resolution in real-time, may be solved by extending commonly available control techniques Main ConclusionsMain Conclusions
  25. 25. Integrated Vehicle Control System Any Questions ?Any Questions ?

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