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Biology Day 2006


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Presentation at WIU\'s Biology Day 2006 to middle school students

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Biology Day 2006

  1. 1. How Does theHow Does the Walrus Hear?Walrus Hear? What Does theWhat Does the Walrus Say?Walrus Say?
  2. 2. Walrus HearingWalrus Hearing  Little knownLittle known  Only one study andOnly one study and probably not entirelyprobably not entirely accurate.accurate.  AmphibiousAmphibious  AerialAerial  UnderwaterUnderwater
  3. 3. Outer and Middle EarOuter and Middle Ear  Sound vibrations travel to the pinna.Sound vibrations travel to the pinna.  Sound is channeled to the ear drumSound is channeled to the ear drum (tympanic membrane)(tympanic membrane)  Sound is amplified and travels across 3Sound is amplified and travels across 3 bonesbones  Malleus, Incus, StapesMalleus, Incus, Stapes
  4. 4. The Inner EarThe Inner Ear  CochleaCochlea  Oval windowOval window  Doorway to CochleaDoorway to Cochlea  Basilar MembraneBasilar Membrane  Vibrations lead to pitch and tone detectionVibrations lead to pitch and tone detection  Hair CellsHair Cells  Bend as the basilar membrane rubs togetherBend as the basilar membrane rubs together  Auditory NerveAuditory Nerve  Hair cells that bend release CaHair cells that bend release Ca++ that relays thethat relays the message to the brain.message to the brain.
  5. 5. Cochlea-straightenedCochlea-straightened
  6. 6. Adaptations in WaterAdaptations in Water  Bone ConductanceBone Conductance  Reduced PinnaReduced Pinna
  7. 7. Questions On HearingQuestions On Hearing
  8. 8. Do they Talk?Do they Talk?  NO!NO!  Walruses communicateWalruses communicate  SoundsSounds  TouchTouch  SmellSmell  BehaviorBehavior
  9. 9. ActivityActivity  Break into groupsBreak into groups  Come up with sounds that you think aCome up with sounds that you think a walrus would makewalrus would make  Must give a demo of the soundMust give a demo of the sound  Why does this sound matter?Why does this sound matter?
  10. 10. My ResearchMy Research  Study PinnipedsStudy Pinnipeds  Pacific WalrusPacific Walrus  Pacific Harbor SealPacific Harbor Seal  California Sea LionCalifornia Sea Lion  Record Underwater SoundsRecord Underwater Sounds  Look for Ultrasonic frequenciesLook for Ultrasonic frequencies  Catalog the Repertoire at HigherCatalog the Repertoire at Higher FrequenciesFrequencies
  11. 11. BackgroundBackground  Males are typicallyMales are typically vocal to attractvocal to attract females duringfemales during breeding seasonbreeding season  Pick up linePick up line  No studies onNo studies on femalesfemales  Very vocal animalsVery vocal animals
  12. 12. GoalsGoals  To record underwaterTo record underwater sounds to look forsounds to look for ultrasonicultrasonic components andcomponents and potential use towardspotential use towards echolocation.echolocation.  To observe behaviorsTo observe behaviors in attempt toin attempt to understand functionunderstand function of sounds produced.of sounds produced.
  13. 13. MaterialsMaterials  Ithaco 605 Hydrophone-Ithaco 605 Hydrophone- Ultrasonic frequencyUltrasonic frequency response.response.  DELL XPS M140 Laptop.DELL XPS M140 Laptop.  Goldwave sound analysisGoldwave sound analysis program and recordingprogram and recording  Spectrogram soundSpectrogram sound analysis program.analysis program.
  14. 14. MethodsMethods  Recordings takenRecordings taken during Spring andduring Spring and Summer months ofSummer months of 2006 at Brookfield2006 at Brookfield Zoo between 6-10AM.Zoo between 6-10AM.  Behavioral notesBehavioral notes taken as needed astaken as needed as well as video.well as video.
  15. 15. What do I do with theWhat do I do with the datadata  Listen to sound filesListen to sound files  Identify SoundsIdentify Sounds  Analyze withAnalyze with SoftwareSoftware  Identify certainIdentify certain featuresfeatures  Run statistical testsRun statistical tests  Similar and differentSimilar and different
  16. 16. Glugs by JoanGlugs by Joan
  17. 17. Unclassified SoundUnclassified Sound
  18. 18. ConclusionsConclusions  Walruses makeWalruses make really cool soundsreally cool sounds  Still not sure whyStill not sure why  Much of it isn’tMuch of it isn’t ultrasonicultrasonic
  19. 19. Just for funJust for fun