Outline of an approach to language teaching:• Introduce meaningful models of language thestudent need• Conduct careful practice of the language•Organize communicative interaction•Give feedback on the students’ use of the language
Introduce meaningful models of language the studentneed-warm-up period-a review of something learned earlier which is relevantto what is comingElicitationPresentationExplanation
Elicitation“Before you teach something, find out if your students already know it.”“Learning and teaching begin on the edge of what the students alreadyknow.”-Another important use of elicitation is when a student asks a questionand you turn this question back to the class.-You need to be careful here not to hurt anyone’s feelings. Explain thatthe idea is;•To show the students can learn from each other.•To encourage a feeling of working together.•To take the threat out of being corrected by a colleague.
Presentation We want to present new language items meaningfully, insome kind of communicative context, in a way which will maketheir use clear. This is one reason why you will often find newgrammatical first shown in a dialogue. Another reason is that, bypracticing a dialogue in pairs, students can be involved in anappearance of interaction. They may thus get a feel of how thelanguage is used, as well as an understanding how the newgrammar works.
ExplanationIt is impossible to predict in advance exactly which parts of apresentation will not be clear to which students. We do know,however, that some learners need to understand new information(especially grammar) explicitly and appreciate rules of some kind.There are two demands on the teacher:Continue to improve own understanding of the language systems(words, grammar, functions, discourse, pronunciation) that youare teaching;Use increasing knowledge to make explanations shorter, simplerand more relevant.
Conducting careful practice of the language The purpose of practice is to help students develop what theyknow about the language. Good practice will provide secure guidancefor the learners, but will also do some of the following:•Focus on the students’ own lives and experiences•Encourage interaction between students•Practice different language skills of speaking, listening, reading andwriting in relation to new items;•Integrate the skills by using a listening or reading passage to provideinformation for practice and/or to work as a model for speaking orwriting exercise.