REPLACEMENT
CONDENSING BOILERS
CenterPoint Energy’s 2014 Energy Efficiency
and Technology Conference
Russ Landry, PE
Senio...
What we do
• Program Design and Delivery
• Lending Center
• Engineering Services
• Innovation Exchange
• Research
• Educat...
Pg. 4
How Condensing Boilers
Outperform Conventional Boilers
• Conventional Boilers
• All “steam” goes out the vent
• Safe...
Condensing Efficiency “Boost”
• 1 pound captured steam can heat 50 pounds of water
5
=
20°F
ΔT
Condensing Boiler Efficiency Improvement
80% 85% 90% 95% 100%
Condensing--Your Building
Condensing--Ideal
Condensing--Mini...
Getting The “Rated” Efficiency Boost Out
of Condensing Boilers (>90% Efficiency)
Pg. 8
Chart for Showing Moisture in Air Issues
• Curve at top shows when “Air”
can’t hold any more moisture
(aka dewpoint ...
Pg. 9
Applying Condensing Boilers vs Furnaces
75%
80%
85%
90%
95%
100%
60°F 80°F 100°F 120°F 140°F 160°F 180°F 200°F
Enter...
Pg. 10
Applying Condensing Boilers vs Furnaces
75%
80%
85%
90%
95%
100%
60°F 110°F 160°F
Efficiency
Entering Water/Air Tem...
Pg. 11
Applying Condensing Boilers vs Furnaces
75%
80%
85%
90%
95%
100%
60°F 80°F 100°F 120°F 140°F 160°F 180°F 200°F
Ente...
3 Rules for “Energy Value” of
Condensing Boiler System
1) Low Return Water Temperature!
2) Low Return Water Temperature!
3...
Getting Heat from One Fluid to Another
• Heat naturally flows “Downhill” from
hot to cold
• The bigger the temperature
dif...
Pg. 14-20°F
0°F
20°F
40°F
60°F
80°F
100°F
120°F
140°F
160°F
180°F
Gas, Coal or Oil
3,500 – 4,000F
Avg Boiler Water 170F
...
Pg. 15
Central System Designed for
Condensing Boiler
-20°F
0°F
20°F
40°F
60°F
80°F
100°F
120°F
140°F
160°F
180°F
Gas at 3,...
System and Load Affects on
Condensing Boiler Efficiency “Boost”
• Outdoor reset control
• Lower return water temperature =...
Pg. 17
Outdoor Reset Lowers Water Temperature
As the heating load goes down, less temperature difference is needed to driv...
Pg. 18
Reducing Flow in Buildings
• Heat carried by water or air
• Depends on temperature change (TD or T)
• Depends on w...
Pg. 19
75%
80%
85%
90%
95%
100%
80°F 100°F 120°F 140°F 160°F 180°F
Entering Water Temperature
BoilerEfficiency
System Pipi...
Pg. 20
Combined Outdoor Reset & VSD
Pg. 21
Reducing Flow & Return Temp:
3-Way Valves
XX
Pg. 22
Reducing Flow & Return Temp:
2-Way Valves
XX
• Lower Temperature
• Lower Flow
Pg. 23
Getting The “Rated” Efficiency Boost Out
of Condensing Boilers (>90% Efficiency)
Service Hot Water: Driving Return Water
• Traditional coil-in tank requires high boiler
temperatures
• Efficiency > tradit...
Key Design & Application Considerations:
Preventing Problems
• General load & system issues
• Ability to provide adequate ...
Key Design & Application Considerations:
Preventing Problems (cont.)
• Venting Considerations
• Design and installation de...
Key for Condensing Boiler Efficiency:
Driving Return Water Temperature Down
 Space heating elements
 System piping
 Sys...
Pg. 28
Condensing Boiler Sensitivity to Excess Air
• Controlling excess air even more important
• Excess air reduces conce...
Pg. 29
Traditional Factor of Burner “Excess Air”
Acknowledgements
• This project was supported in part by a grant from the
Minnesota Department of Commerce, Division of
En...
Project Overview: Condensing Boiler
Optimization
• Market Study & Site Selection
• Monitoring & Analysis of 12 Building
• ...
Minnesota’s Condensing Boiler Market:
Preliminary Findings
• Condensing boilers have become the default choice
• Used in a...
Water Temperatures:
Outdoor Temperature When 130°F Reached
Preliminary Results
Water Temperatures:
Outdoor Temperature When 130°F Reached
Preliminary Results
Water Temperatures:
Outdoor Temperature When 130°F Reached
0
1
2
3
4
<25°F 25 - 35°F 35 - 45°F 45 - 55°F >55°F
Preliminary...
Excess Air Variations
Preliminary Results
Preliminary Results
In Conclusion…
• Condensing boilers can be a great, green investment
• Success depends on different approach by all
• Mini...
Resources…
• High Efficiency Boiler Information
• Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration
Institute (www.ahrinet.org)...
Russ Landry, PE
rlandry@mncee.org
612-335-5863
Condensing Boilers
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Condensing Boilers

  1. 1. REPLACEMENT CONDENSING BOILERS CenterPoint Energy’s 2014 Energy Efficiency and Technology Conference Russ Landry, PE Senior Mechanical Engineer May 21, 2014
  2. 2. What we do • Program Design and Delivery • Lending Center • Engineering Services • Innovation Exchange • Research • Education and Outreach • Public Policy
  3. 3. Pg. 4 How Condensing Boilers Outperform Conventional Boilers • Conventional Boilers • All “steam” goes out the vent • Safety factor to prevent condensation limits efficiency • Condensing Boilers • A portion of the steam is used for heating • No safety factor
  4. 4. Condensing Efficiency “Boost” • 1 pound captured steam can heat 50 pounds of water 5 = 20°F ΔT
  5. 5. Condensing Boiler Efficiency Improvement 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% Condensing--Your Building Condensing--Ideal Condensing--Minimum Conventional Boiler Conventional Condensing ????? If condensate drain dry after running
  6. 6. Getting The “Rated” Efficiency Boost Out of Condensing Boilers (>90% Efficiency)
  7. 7. Pg. 8 Chart for Showing Moisture in Air Issues • Curve at top shows when “Air” can’t hold any more moisture (aka dewpoint or saturated) • Once at the top, cooling more condenses moisture out of air
  8. 8. Pg. 9 Applying Condensing Boilers vs Furnaces 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 60°F 80°F 100°F 120°F 140°F 160°F 180°F 200°F Entering Water/Air Temperature Efficiency
  9. 9. Pg. 10 Applying Condensing Boilers vs Furnaces 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 60°F 110°F 160°F Efficiency Entering Water/Air Temperature
  10. 10. Pg. 11 Applying Condensing Boilers vs Furnaces 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 60°F 80°F 100°F 120°F 140°F 160°F 180°F 200°F Entering Water/Air Temperature Efficiency
  11. 11. 3 Rules for “Energy Value” of Condensing Boiler System 1) Low Return Water Temperature! 2) Low Return Water Temperature! 3) Low Return Water Temperature!
  12. 12. Getting Heat from One Fluid to Another • Heat naturally flows “Downhill” from hot to cold • The bigger the temperature difference, the faster the heat flows • The bigger the area, the faster the heat flows 13
  13. 13. Pg. 14-20°F 0°F 20°F 40°F 60°F 80°F 100°F 120°F 140°F 160°F 180°F Gas, Coal or Oil 3,500 – 4,000F Avg Boiler Water 170F Boiler Radiators AirHandler/VAV Mixed or Cooled Air Mix ~350 to 400F Getting Heat into a Space in a Building: “Typical” Central System
  14. 14. Pg. 15 Central System Designed for Condensing Boiler -20°F 0°F 20°F 40°F 60°F 80°F 100°F 120°F 140°F 160°F 180°F Gas at 3,500F Boiler Water 160F Average Boiler Radiators Heated Air Mixed or Cooled Air Mix Radiant Floor + AirHandler/VAV
  15. 15. System and Load Affects on Condensing Boiler Efficiency “Boost” • Outdoor reset control • Lower return water temperature = condensing boiler efficiency improvement • Reduces load from overheating and pipe heat loss • Lower flow (e.g. pump VSD & 2-way valves) • Pump energy savings • Low return water temperature = condensing boiler efficiency improvement
  16. 16. Pg. 17 Outdoor Reset Lowers Water Temperature As the heating load goes down, less temperature difference is needed to drive the heat flow. -20°F 0°F 20°F 40°F 60°F 80°F 100°F 120°F 140°F 160°F 180°F Boiler Water 150F Average Space 75F
  17. 17. Pg. 18 Reducing Flow in Buildings • Heat carried by water or air • Depends on temperature change (TD or T) • Depends on water or air flow rate
  18. 18. Pg. 19 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 80°F 100°F 120°F 140°F 160°F 180°F Entering Water Temperature BoilerEfficiency System Piping: Driving return water temperature down • Avoid 3-way/4-way valves on main line • Reduced flow brings down return temperature • If mixed boilers – cold water & max load to condensing Typical Flow Low Flow
  19. 19. Pg. 20 Combined Outdoor Reset & VSD
  20. 20. Pg. 21 Reducing Flow & Return Temp: 3-Way Valves XX
  21. 21. Pg. 22 Reducing Flow & Return Temp: 2-Way Valves XX • Lower Temperature • Lower Flow
  22. 22. Pg. 23 Getting The “Rated” Efficiency Boost Out of Condensing Boilers (>90% Efficiency)
  23. 23. Service Hot Water: Driving Return Water • Traditional coil-in tank requires high boiler temperatures • Efficiency > traditional water heaters • Efficiency sacrificed with condensing equipment 130°F Boiler >130°F
  24. 24. Key Design & Application Considerations: Preventing Problems • General load & system issues • Ability to provide adequate heat w/low return temperatures • Ability to reduce flow rate w/out branch balance problems • 2-way valves on loads to replace 3-way valves • Product-specific issues • Control coordination • Small water passages in old cast iron system • Pressure drop compatibility with system • Flow rate compatibility (short-cycling) • Dual temperature inlets
  25. 25. Key Design & Application Considerations: Preventing Problems (cont.) • Venting Considerations • Design and installation details to deal with condensate • Sidewall venting can cause moisture problems with large boilers • Orphaned water heater • Vent cost key factor @bottom of hi-rise
  26. 26. Key for Condensing Boiler Efficiency: Driving Return Water Temperature Down  Space heating elements  System piping  System control—pump  System control—temperature  Service hot water 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 80°F 100°F 120°F 140°F 160°F 180°F Entering Water Temperature BoilerEfficiency
  27. 27. Pg. 28 Condensing Boiler Sensitivity to Excess Air • Controlling excess air even more important • Excess air reduces concentration of water vapor • Dewpoint decreases Low Excess Air High Excess Air
  28. 28. Pg. 29 Traditional Factor of Burner “Excess Air”
  29. 29. Acknowledgements • This project was supported in part by a grant from the Minnesota Department of Commerce, Division of Energy Resources through the Conservation Applied Research and Development (CARD) program
  30. 30. Project Overview: Condensing Boiler Optimization • Market Study & Site Selection • Monitoring & Analysis of 12 Building • 4 Education • 4 Multifamily • 4 Government/Office • Industry Survey of CIP Program Options • Dissemination
  31. 31. Minnesota’s Condensing Boiler Market: Preliminary Findings • Condensing boilers have become the default choice • Used in all building types that have space heating boilers • Manufacturer’s reps acknowledge often suboptimal situations • Part-load efficiency improvements may be significantly overstated in some cases
  32. 32. Water Temperatures: Outdoor Temperature When 130°F Reached Preliminary Results
  33. 33. Water Temperatures: Outdoor Temperature When 130°F Reached Preliminary Results
  34. 34. Water Temperatures: Outdoor Temperature When 130°F Reached 0 1 2 3 4 <25°F 25 - 35°F 35 - 45°F 45 - 55°F >55°F Preliminary Results
  35. 35. Excess Air Variations Preliminary Results
  36. 36. Preliminary Results
  37. 37. In Conclusion… • Condensing boilers can be a great, green investment • Success depends on different approach by all • Minimize return water temperature! • Outdoor reset control • Reduce flow through building • Solve zone specific issues • Boiler tuning of air-fuel ratio is even more critical with condensing boilers • Control coordination must be well thought out & verified
  38. 38. Resources… • High Efficiency Boiler Information • Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (www.ahrinet.org) • EnergyStar.gov • California Energy Commission web site • Consortium for Energy Efficiency www.cee1.org/gas/gs-blrs/gs-blrs-main.php3 www.cee1.org/gas/gs-blrs/Boiler_assess.pdf • CEE web site
  39. 39. Russ Landry, PE rlandry@mncee.org 612-335-5863

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