Active surveillance involves the regular monitoring of surveillance sites by designated persons. These persons often call up a site to gather information on injury events that happened in the previous month or week. One example of this process would be the surveillance of injuries from domestic violence in emergency departments. Research personnel would contact emergency departments on a regular interval to identify injury events from domestic violence. As no data sources routinely identify domestic violence injuries, this type of active surveillance is necessary to identify the incidence of domestic violence events.
More commonly surveillance systems are passive. By definition, researchers or health department personnel do not go out into the community to find cases. Rather, they develop instruments that persons in the community have to send into them (e.g. death certificates) as a means of identifying events. Reportable diseases such as AIDS and malaria, etc. are monitored in this fashion. Laboratories, physicians, and hospitals have to report these events to the health department when they identify a case at their institution. In some states, spinal cord injuries are a reportable condition and are followed with passive surveillance.
Survieellance by dr najeeb
By DR: NAJEEB MEMON MPH Assist: Professor F.C.M & P.H.SLUMHS, Jamshoro Pakistan e mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Surveillance• Watch over with great attention, authority & often with suspicion.
• “The continuous scrutiny of the factors that determine theoccurrence & distribution of disease & other conditions of ill health.”• Objective: Prevention
Main Objectives of Surveillance• 1. To provide information about new & changing trends in the health status of a population. E.g:-• Morbidity• Mortality• Nutritional status• Or other indicators• & environmental hazards• Health practices• & other factors that may affect the health.
2. To provide feed-back Which may be expected to modify the policy & the system itself to redefinition of objectives.• 3. provide timely warning of public health disasters so that intervention can be mobilized.
Monitoring Surveillance• Careful planning • In contrast, requires professional analysis &• Use of standarized sophisticated judgment of data. procedures & Methods of Data collection • Leading to• & can then be carried out recommendations for control activities. over extended periods of time by technicians & automated instrumentation.
Sentinel surveillance• A method for identifying the missing cases & thereby supplementing the notified cases is required.• The sentinel data is extrapolated to entire population to estimate the disease prevalence in total population.• ( Reporting bias are minimized)• Competent physicians ( or institutions ) in selected areas to report the cases of disease in their areas.• More valuable than traditional notification system.Routine Surveillance / Traditional Notification system• No routine notification system can identify all cases of infection or disease.
Active Surveillance • the collection of data on a disease by regular outreach. • Designated medical personnel are called at regular intervals to collect information on the new cases of disease. monitoring domestic violence in emergency departments
Active Surveillance Health Dept. Designated medical personnel are called at regular intervals to collect information on the new cases of disease.
Passive Surveillance • data generated without contact by the agency carrying out the surveillance. • Reportable diseases fall under this type of surveillance.
PassiveSurveillance Health Dept. Reportable diseases fall under this type of surveillance
Communicable disease surveillance• Communicable disease surveillance is the continuous monitoring of the frequency and the distribution of disease, and death, due to infections that can be transmitted from human to human or from animals, food, water or the environment to humans, and the monitoring of risk factors for those infections. Public health surveillance also encompasses non-communicable conditions including injury, for example poisonings.
Why do we undertake surveillance?• Estimate magnitude of the problem• Determine geographic distribution of illness• Portray the natural history of a disease• Detect epidemics/define a problem• Generate hypotheses, stimulate research• Evaluate control measures• Monitor changes in infectious agents• Detect changes in health practices• Facilitate planning
• Surveillance may comprise:• (a) Individual surveillance: This is surveillance of infected persons until they are no longer a significant risk to other individuals,• (b) Local population surveillance: e.g., surveillance of malaria,• (c) National population surveillance: e.g., surveillance of smallpox after the disease has been eradicated, and• (d) International surveillance: At the international level, the WHO maintains surveillance of important diseases (e.g., influenza, malaria, polio, etc.) and gives timely warning to all national governments . Surveillance, if properly pursued, can provide the health agencies with an overall intelligence and disease- accounting capability. Surveillance is an essential prerequisite to the rational design and evaluation of any disease control programme.
Methods:• Collection of Data• Morbidity Mortality source of infection Mode of transmission• Evaluation / Analysis• Inference• Dissemination of Information to concerned Authorities for implementation
Eradication• “Tear out by roots”• “Cessation of infection & dis: from whole world”• Eradication is an absolute process, an” all or none” phenomenon, restricted to termination of an infection from the whole world.(through surveillance & containment)• It implies that disease will no longer occur in a population.• To-date only one dis: has been eradicated Smallpox
Elimination• No case but causative agent may be there• The term elimination is some times used for “Eradication” of dis: (e.g Measles) from a large geographic region or political jurisdiction.• In the state of our present knowledge, diseases which are amenable to eradicate are: Measles, Polio, Diphtheria, Guinea worm Interruption of transmission of Disease.Regional Elimination is seen as an important precursor of Eradication.