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- 1. BIOSTATISTICS BIOSTATISTICS
- 2. STATISTICSIt is the science of collection, summarizing , analyzing ,interpreting & presentation of data.
- 3. BIOSTATISTICS- Branch of statistics -Deals with the application of statistical methods to the information related to Health sciences.
- 4. TYPES:1. DESCRIPTIVE BIOSTATISTICSdeal with the enumeration, organization Andgraphical representation of data.
- 5. 2. INFERENTIAL BIOSTATISTICS.are concerned with reaching conclusionsfrom incomplete information,that is, generalizing from the specific sample.
- 6. VARIABLE :It is the characteristic of the person, object or phenomenon that can take on any value.
- 7. DATA:It is the set of values of one or more variables recorded on one or more individuals.
- 8. Primary Data: Census is an example ofcollecting primary data from populationSecondary Data:Already existing data about problem / population example from hospital record, to use the census data.
- 9. TYPES OF DATA 1. QUALITATIVE DATA : It is the data which shows individualvalues falling into separate classes,these classes may have no numerical relationship with one another. Example: hair color , severity of disease.
- 10. QUALITATIVE DATA A.NOMINAL B. ORDINAL DATA DATA ORDERED OR CATEGORICALIt is the data that It is the data in which there is natural one can name, it ordering of the is unordered, categories. either-on type of Example: severity of data. disease (Mild, Moderate,Example: severe), occupational groupsSex (Male, Female)hair color.
- 11. 2. QUANTITATIVE DATA : It is the data whichshows some numerical value. Example:Family size , height , weight.
- 12. QUANTITATIVE DATAA. DISCRETE QUANTITATIVE DATA It is the quantitative data that takes only integral (whole number) of values. Example: Number of children in family, Number of deaths. B. CONTINUOUS QUANTITATIVE DATA It is the quantitative data that can be recorded on continuous scale i,e it can
- 13. Sources of data on community health Data may come from different sources: Surveillance systems (e.g., NIH) Planned surveys (Government, Universities, NGOs) Experiments (Pharmaceutical Companies) Health Organizations (Administrative Data sets) Private sector (Banks, Companies, etc) Government (All government agencies)Census: (periodic count, after every 10 ys:)There are 2 principal methods for Enumeration of population.De facto:Which allocates persons according to their location at the time of enumeration.and the total of all persons present at the time of the Census as the de facto population or persons �present in the area� on Census DayDe jure:this assigns them according to their usual place of residence( The total of all usual residents is generally referred to as the de jure population
- 14. Organizing Data Frequency Table Frequency Histogram Relative Frequency Histogram Frequency polygon Relative Frequency polygon Bar chart Pie chart stem-and-leaf display Box Plot
- 15. PRESENTATION OF DATA RATES,RATIOS AND PROPORTIONS. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLES: - Simple Tables. - Complex Tables. - 2 x 2 Tables. CHARTS AND GRAPHS.
- 16. RATE A RATE IS DEFINED AS THE NUMBER OF EVENTS PER UNIT OF POP ; PARTICULAR TIME PERIOD. RATE= (A/A+B) x TO CALCULATE A RATE,WE NEED THE FOLLOWING: 1. NUMERATOR i.e. THE No: OF EVENTS OCCURINGIN A DEFINED PERIOD. 2. DENOMINATOR i.e. THE DEFINED POPULATION. 3. DEFINED PERIOD OF TIME 4. A MULTIPLIER.
- 17. A RATE MEASURES THE OCCURANCE OF SOME PARTICULAR EVENT IN ASPECIFIED POPULATION IN A DEFINED PERIOD OF TIME. THE VARIOUS CATEGORIES OF RATE ARE: 1. CRUDE RATES 2. SPECIFIED RATES 3. STANDARDIZED RATES.
- 18. RATIOA RATIO IS THE EXPRESSION OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO RANDOM QUANTITIES. IT IS OBTAINED BY DIVIDING ONE QUANTITY BY ANOTHER. EXAMPLE : Male : Female Ratio, Rural: Urban Ratio, Doctor : Patient Ratio, RBC : WBC Ratio.
- 19. PROPORTIONA PROPORTION IS THE NUMERICAL EXPRESSION OF A PART DIVIDED BY THE WHOLE. INA PROPORTION, THE NUMERICAL IS THE PART OF THE DENOMINATOR. PROPORTION = A A + B WHEN A PROPORTION IS MULTIPLIED BY 100, IT IS CALLED A PERCENTAGE.
- 20. Organizing Data Frequency Table Frequency Histogram Relative Frequency Histogram Frequency polygon Relative Frequency polygon Bar chart Pie chart stem-and-leaf display Box Plot
- 21. Presentation of statistical Data 1.Tabulation Simple T Frequency distribution T 2. Charts & Diagrams 1. Bar charts a. simple bar chart b. Multiple bar chart c. component bar chart 3. Histogram Frequency polygon Line Diagram Scatter Diagram 3.Pie charts 4. Pictogram 5. statistical Maps
- 22. Tabulation Are devices for presenting data May be simple or complex Some principles Table should be numbered (Tab:1 or 2 ) Title Headings of column & rows Data alphabetically or geographically Not too large Footnotes
- 23. Table 1 Population of some cities of Saudi ArabiaCity PopulationArar 240000Sakaka 114000 Source: Wikipedia
- 24. Frequency distribution Table Data is first split up in to convenient group (class intervals) & no: of items ( frequency) are in adjacent columns E.g:- 2358235789742467324679 Age group Frequency 0-4 //// //// 10 5-9 //// //// // 12
- 25. Charts & Diagrams For simple statistical data Have a powerful impact on the imagination of the people Especially in newspapers & magazines. Diagrams are better retained in mind than statistical tables.
- 26. Bar charts Way of presenting a set of numbers by the length of a bar length of a bar is proportional to the magnitude to be represented. Easy to prepare Values to be compared
- 27. A, simple barsVertical or horizontalAre separated by spaces
- 28. Multiple bar chart / compound bar chart2 or more bars can be grouped together
- 29. Component bar chartDivided in to 2 or more partsEach part representing a certain item& proportional to the magnitude of that particular item .
- 30. HistogramPictorial diagram of frequency distributionClass intervals given on horizontal axis& frequency along vertical axis
- 31. Joining the mid points of histograms blocksShowing freq: distrib: of reading of fating sugar blood
- 32. Line Diagram Show the trends of events with the passage of time Malaria cases in Africa8 mil642 1970 80 2000
- 33. Pie chartThe areas of a circle are comparedThe area of each segment depends upon the angleOften % in the segments
- 34. PictogramPopular method of presenting data to the “man in the street”Small pictures or symbol are used to present the data.
- 35. Dot MapsWhen refer to geographic or administrative areas.
- 36. Shaded mapsWhen refer to geographic or administrative areas, according tosuitability. Presenting data of varying sizeAreas are shaded with different colors
- 37. Scatter diagramsShows relationship b/w 2 variables ( linear nature )+ve correlation b/w stress & B.P
- 38. GOOD THE ENDBY GOOD BYEE

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