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BIOSTATISTICS                BIOSTATISTICS
STATISTICSIt is the science of collection, summarizing , analyzing ,interpreting                              &           ...
BIOSTATISTICS- Branch of statistics -Deals with the application of statistical methods to the information related to Healt...
TYPES:1. DESCRIPTIVE BIOSTATISTICSdeal with the enumeration, organization Andgraphical representation of data.
2. INFERENTIAL       BIOSTATISTICS.are concerned with reaching conclusionsfrom incomplete information,that is, generalizin...
VARIABLE :It is the characteristic of the            person,            object        or phenomenon  that can take on any ...
DATA:It is the set of values of one or more variables                   recorded on             one or more individuals.
Primary Data: Census   is an example ofcollecting primary data from populationSecondary Data:Already existing data about ...
TYPES OF DATA    1. QUALITATIVE DATA :  It is the data which shows individualvalues falling into separate classes,these cl...
QUALITATIVE DATA A.NOMINAL             B.                          ORDINAL DATA  DATA                  ORDERED OR       ...
2. QUANTITATIVE DATA :      It is the data whichshows some numerical value.           Example:Family size , height , weight.
QUANTITATIVE DATAA.     DISCRETE QUANTITATIVE DATA         It is the quantitative data that takes          only integral (...
Sources of data on community health                  Data may come from different sources:                               S...
Organizing Data   Frequency Table   Frequency Histogram   Relative Frequency Histogram   Frequency polygon   Relative...
PRESENTATION OF DATA RATES,RATIOS   AND PROPORTIONS.   FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLES:      - Simple Tables.      - Compl...
RATE   A RATE IS DEFINED AS THE NUMBER OF    EVENTS       PER UNIT OF POP ; PARTICULAR TIME    PERIOD.    RATE= (A/A+B) ...
A RATE MEASURES THE   OCCURANCE OF SOME  PARTICULAR EVENT IN ASPECIFIED POPULATION IN A DEFINED PERIOD OF TIME. THE VARIOU...
RATIOA   RATIO IS THE EXPRESSION OF    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO    RANDOM QUANTITIES. IT  IS OBTAINED BY DIVIDING ONE   ...
PROPORTIONA    PROPORTION IS THE NUMERICAL    EXPRESSION OF A PART DIVIDED BY    THE WHOLE. INA PROPORTION, THE NUMERICA...
Organizing Data   Frequency Table   Frequency Histogram   Relative Frequency Histogram   Frequency polygon   Relative...
Presentation of statistical Data   1.Tabulation           Simple T           Frequency distribution T   2. Charts & Diag...
Tabulation   Are devices for presenting data   May be simple or complex   Some principles   Table should be numbered ...
Table 1  Population of some cities of Saudi ArabiaCity                       PopulationArar                        240000S...
Frequency distribution Table   Data is first split up in to convenient group (class intervals) & no: of    items ( freque...
Charts & Diagrams   For simple statistical data   Have a powerful impact on the imagination of the people   Especially ...
Bar charts Way of presenting a set of numbers by the  length of a bar length of a bar is proportional to the magnitude  ...
A, simple barsVertical or horizontalAre separated by spaces
Multiple bar chart / compound bar chart2 or more bars can be grouped together
Component bar chartDivided in to 2 or more partsEach part representing a certain item& proportional to the magnitude of th...
HistogramPictorial diagram of frequency distributionClass intervals given on horizontal axis& frequency along vertical axis
Joining the mid points of histograms blocksShowing freq: distrib: of reading of fating sugar blood
Line Diagram        Show the trends of events with the passage of time         Malaria cases in Africa8 mil642       1970 ...
Pie chartThe areas of a circle are comparedThe area of each segment depends upon the angleOften % in the segments
PictogramPopular method of presenting data to the “man in the street”Small pictures or symbol are used to present the data.
Dot MapsWhen refer to geographic or administrative areas.
Shaded mapsWhen refer to geographic or administrative areas, according tosuitability. Presenting data of varying sizeAreas...
Scatter diagramsShows relationship b/w 2 variables ( linear nature )+ve correlation b/w stress & B.P
GOOD    THE ENDBY      GOOD BYEE
Data types by dr najeeb
Data types by dr najeeb
Data types by dr najeeb
Data types by dr najeeb
Data types by dr najeeb
Data types by dr najeeb
Data types by dr najeeb
Data types by dr najeeb
Data types by dr najeeb
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Data types by dr najeeb

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Data types by dr najeeb

  1. 1. BIOSTATISTICS BIOSTATISTICS
  2. 2. STATISTICSIt is the science of collection, summarizing , analyzing ,interpreting & presentation of data.
  3. 3. BIOSTATISTICS- Branch of statistics -Deals with the application of statistical methods to the information related to Health sciences.
  4. 4. TYPES:1. DESCRIPTIVE BIOSTATISTICSdeal with the enumeration, organization Andgraphical representation of data.
  5. 5. 2. INFERENTIAL BIOSTATISTICS.are concerned with reaching conclusionsfrom incomplete information,that is, generalizing from the specific sample.
  6. 6. VARIABLE :It is the characteristic of the person, object or phenomenon that can take on any value.
  7. 7. DATA:It is the set of values of one or more variables recorded on one or more individuals.
  8. 8. Primary Data: Census is an example ofcollecting primary data from populationSecondary Data:Already existing data about problem / population example from hospital record, to use the census data.
  9. 9. TYPES OF DATA 1. QUALITATIVE DATA : It is the data which shows individualvalues falling into separate classes,these classes may have no numerical relationship with one another. Example: hair color , severity of disease.
  10. 10. QUALITATIVE DATA A.NOMINAL  B. ORDINAL DATA DATA ORDERED OR CATEGORICALIt is the data that It is the data in which there is natural one can name, it ordering of the is unordered, categories. either-on type of Example: severity of data. disease (Mild, Moderate,Example: severe), occupational groupsSex (Male, Female)hair color.
  11. 11. 2. QUANTITATIVE DATA : It is the data whichshows some numerical value. Example:Family size , height , weight.
  12. 12. QUANTITATIVE DATAA. DISCRETE QUANTITATIVE DATA It is the quantitative data that takes only integral (whole number) of values. Example: Number of children in family, Number of deaths. B. CONTINUOUS QUANTITATIVE DATA It is the quantitative data that can be recorded on continuous scale i,e it can
  13. 13. Sources of data on community health Data may come from different sources: Surveillance systems (e.g., NIH) Planned surveys (Government, Universities, NGOs) Experiments (Pharmaceutical Companies) Health Organizations (Administrative Data sets) Private sector (Banks, Companies, etc) Government (All government agencies)Census: (periodic count, after every 10 ys:)There are 2 principal methods for Enumeration of population.De facto:Which allocates persons according to their location at the time of enumeration.and the total of all persons present at the time of the Census as the de facto population or persons �present in the area� on Census DayDe jure:this assigns them according to their usual place of residence( The total of all usual residents is generally referred to as the de jure population
  14. 14. Organizing Data Frequency Table Frequency Histogram Relative Frequency Histogram Frequency polygon Relative Frequency polygon Bar chart Pie chart stem-and-leaf display Box Plot
  15. 15. PRESENTATION OF DATA RATES,RATIOS AND PROPORTIONS. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLES: - Simple Tables. - Complex Tables. - 2 x 2 Tables. CHARTS AND GRAPHS.
  16. 16. RATE A RATE IS DEFINED AS THE NUMBER OF EVENTS PER UNIT OF POP ; PARTICULAR TIME PERIOD. RATE= (A/A+B) x TO CALCULATE A RATE,WE NEED THE FOLLOWING: 1. NUMERATOR i.e. THE No: OF EVENTS OCCURINGIN A DEFINED PERIOD. 2. DENOMINATOR i.e. THE DEFINED POPULATION. 3. DEFINED PERIOD OF TIME 4. A MULTIPLIER.
  17. 17. A RATE MEASURES THE OCCURANCE OF SOME PARTICULAR EVENT IN ASPECIFIED POPULATION IN A DEFINED PERIOD OF TIME. THE VARIOUS CATEGORIES OF RATE ARE: 1. CRUDE RATES 2. SPECIFIED RATES 3. STANDARDIZED RATES.
  18. 18. RATIOA RATIO IS THE EXPRESSION OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO RANDOM QUANTITIES. IT IS OBTAINED BY DIVIDING ONE QUANTITY BY ANOTHER. EXAMPLE : Male : Female Ratio, Rural: Urban Ratio, Doctor : Patient Ratio, RBC : WBC Ratio.
  19. 19. PROPORTIONA PROPORTION IS THE NUMERICAL EXPRESSION OF A PART DIVIDED BY THE WHOLE. INA PROPORTION, THE NUMERICAL IS THE PART OF THE DENOMINATOR. PROPORTION = A A + B WHEN A PROPORTION IS MULTIPLIED BY 100, IT IS CALLED A PERCENTAGE.
  20. 20. Organizing Data Frequency Table Frequency Histogram Relative Frequency Histogram Frequency polygon Relative Frequency polygon Bar chart Pie chart stem-and-leaf display Box Plot
  21. 21. Presentation of statistical Data 1.Tabulation Simple T Frequency distribution T 2. Charts & Diagrams 1. Bar charts a. simple bar chart b. Multiple bar chart c. component bar chart 3. Histogram Frequency polygon Line Diagram Scatter Diagram 3.Pie charts 4. Pictogram 5. statistical Maps
  22. 22. Tabulation Are devices for presenting data May be simple or complex Some principles Table should be numbered (Tab:1 or 2 ) Title Headings of column & rows Data alphabetically or geographically Not too large Footnotes
  23. 23. Table 1 Population of some cities of Saudi ArabiaCity PopulationArar 240000Sakaka 114000 Source: Wikipedia
  24. 24. Frequency distribution Table Data is first split up in to convenient group (class intervals) & no: of items ( frequency) are in adjacent columns E.g:- 2358235789742467324679 Age group Frequency 0-4 //// //// 10 5-9 //// //// // 12
  25. 25. Charts & Diagrams For simple statistical data Have a powerful impact on the imagination of the people Especially in newspapers & magazines. Diagrams are better retained in mind than statistical tables.
  26. 26. Bar charts Way of presenting a set of numbers by the length of a bar length of a bar is proportional to the magnitude to be represented. Easy to prepare Values to be compared
  27. 27. A, simple barsVertical or horizontalAre separated by spaces
  28. 28. Multiple bar chart / compound bar chart2 or more bars can be grouped together
  29. 29. Component bar chartDivided in to 2 or more partsEach part representing a certain item& proportional to the magnitude of that particular item .
  30. 30. HistogramPictorial diagram of frequency distributionClass intervals given on horizontal axis& frequency along vertical axis
  31. 31. Joining the mid points of histograms blocksShowing freq: distrib: of reading of fating sugar blood
  32. 32. Line Diagram Show the trends of events with the passage of time Malaria cases in Africa8 mil642 1970 80 2000
  33. 33. Pie chartThe areas of a circle are comparedThe area of each segment depends upon the angleOften % in the segments
  34. 34. PictogramPopular method of presenting data to the “man in the street”Small pictures or symbol are used to present the data.
  35. 35. Dot MapsWhen refer to geographic or administrative areas.
  36. 36. Shaded mapsWhen refer to geographic or administrative areas, according tosuitability. Presenting data of varying sizeAreas are shaded with different colors
  37. 37. Scatter diagramsShows relationship b/w 2 variables ( linear nature )+ve correlation b/w stress & B.P
  38. 38. GOOD THE ENDBY GOOD BYEE

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