Lesson 2 : Hardware & Software Certificate I in Information Technology
• To perform any desired action using a computer, you must have both hardware and software.• Software brings the computer to life! Hardware Software
Hardware• Hardware refers to the physical parts of a computer.• They are things which you can touch and feel.• Peripherals; hardware attached to a computer, which expands its Source: http://www.coolnerds.com/newbies/hardware/hardware.htm capabilities
Software• A software is a collection of instructions (code) that enables a user to interact with the computer or have the computer perform specific tasks for them.• Without any software, the computer hardware would be useless.• Software are created using computer programming languages. E.g. Java, C++, Visual Basic, etc.
Types of Software1) Systems softwareSystems software are responsible for controlling, integrating, andmanaging the individual hardware components of a computer system.They also act as an interface between other software and hardware.Systems software work in a way that other software and the users ofthe system see it as a functional unit without having to be concernedwith the low-level details (e.g.: transferring data from memory to disk,or rendering text onto a display).
Types of Software1) Systems softwareGenerally, these consists of an operating system (OS) and somefundamental utilities.E.g. of OS: Microsoft Windows, Linux, Max OS, Solaris, Unix, etc.E.g. of system utilities: BIOS software, networking and devicecontrol software, hardware drivers, hard disk sector boot software,disk formatting software etc.).
Types of Software2) Application softwareApplication software are used to accomplish specific tasks otherthan just running the computer system.
Types of Software2) Application softwareApplication software may consist of- a single program e.g. Firefox, iTunes, Microsoft Paint, Notepad, Skype, etc.- a collection of programs (software package/suite) e.g. Microsoft Office (Word, Excel, Access, Outlook, Project, etc.) and Adobe Creative Suite (Adobe Acrobat, Dreamweaver, Photoshop, Illustrator, InDesign, etc.)
Primary Storage Devices / Internal Memory Random Access Memory (RAM) Stores program instructions and data temporarily + Volatile: the data gets erased when the component loses power + Directly accessible to the CPU + Faster than secondary storage devices like hard disks
Secondary Storage Devices / External Memory Read Only Memory (ROM) Memory that is capable of holding data and having that data read from the chip, but not written to. + Non-volatile: the data stored does not get erased when the chip loses power + Data stored in these chips is either unchangeable or requires a special operation to change + Contain essential start-up data or instructions
Secondary Storage Devices / External Memory Read Only Memory (ROM) e.g.: BIOS (Basic Input/Output System); programmed for controlling the systems main input-output interfaces. BIOS is a built-in software that determines what a computer can do without accessing programs from a disk. On PCs, the BIOS contains all the code required to control the keyboard, display screen, disk drives, etc.
Secondary Storage Devices / External Memory + Non-volatile: the data does not get erased when the drive loses power + Not directly accessible to the CPU; CPU uses input/output channels to access data + Slower than primary storage devices (memory) like RAM devices.
Buses• A bus, in computing, is a set of physical connections (cables, printed circuits, etc.) which can be shared by multiple hardware components in order to communicate with one another.• Buses reduce the number of "pathways" needed for communication between the components, by carrying out all communications over a single data channel
Bus• Depending on the type of the bus and computer the bus’s operation can be unidirectional or bidirectional.• Examples of buses: – Data bus: It carries the data between the different components of the computer. – Address bus: It selects the route that has to be followed by the data bus to transfer the data – Expansion bus: It is used to connect the computer’s peripheral devices such as printer, modem and scanner with the processor.