Additional notes introduction to computers


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Additional notes introduction to computers

  1. 1. Introduction to Computers
  2. 2. What Is a Computer?How is a computer defined? An extremely fast electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory which processes data into useful information. Processes data into Accepts data information Raw facts, figures, and Data that is organized, symbols meaningful, and useful Produces and stores results Next
  3. 3. Basic Characteristics of a Computer Fast Electronic Device Can remember information & retain it future use Programmable
  4. 4. Special Characteristics of a Computer Speed Accuracy Diligence Storage
  5. 5. Why Do We UseComputers?Uses In Today’s Society
  6. 6. Education Students use software to aid in learning and completing assignments Delivery of education may come via computer Many books come equipped with educational software as well.
  7. 7. Health Care Computers are used to maintain patient’s records Computers monitor vital signs Computers assist with research There are many computerized devices that are implanted into patients that allow them to live longer
  8. 8. Travel Aids in providing directions Provides emergency services when pressing an emergency button Dispatches roadside assistance Tracks a vehicle if it is stolen Honk the horn for assistance with location
  9. 9. Government Most government offices have websites for citizens to access Computers are able to file taxes, store drivers licenses, or apply for certain permits Government agency employees use computers in their daily activities FBI posts criminal information on its website
  10. 10. What are the Components of a Computer? 10
  11. 11. What Is a Computer?What is the information processing cycle? Input Process Output Storage Communication Next
  12. 12. The Components of a ComputerWhat is an _____ device? input Hardware used to enter data and instructions Next
  13. 13. The Components of a ComputerWhat is an ______ device? output Hardware that conveys information to a user Next
  14. 14. The Components of a ComputerWhat is the system unit? Box-like case containing electronic components used to process data Next
  15. 15. The Components of a ComputerWhat are two main components on the motherboard? Central Processing Unit (CPU) Also called a microprocessor (ALU & control unit) Carries out instructions that tell computer what to do Memory Temporary holding place for data and instructions Next
  16. 16. The Components of a Computer What is storage?  Holds data, instructions, and information for future use Storage media Physical material on which data, instructions, and information are stored Storage device Records and retrieves items to and from a storage mediump. 1.06 Next
  17. 17. The Components of a Computer Storage media: Hard Disks (up to 1 TB) CDs Floppy Disks (older media) (CD-R, CD-RW) Memory Cards USB Flash Drives DVDs (DVD-R, DVD-RW)p. 7 Next
  18. 18. Computer Input: What Is Input? What is input?  Data or instructions entered into the memory of a computer  An Input device is any hardware component used to enter data or instructions  Keyboard, mouse, stylus, scanner, digital camera, voice inputp. 5.02 and 5.04 Fig. 5-1 Next
  19. 19. What Is Input? What are two types DATA of input? Bradley Kinkade 42 hours $12.50 per hour Data  A collection of raw unprocessed facts, figures, and symbols Instructions  Programs  Commands  User responses hard diskp. 5.3 Fig. 5-2 INSTRUCTIONS
  20. 20. What Is Input? What are the two types of input?  Data  Unprocessed text, numbers, images, audio, and video  Instructions  Programs  Commands  User responsesp. 5.02 Fig. 5-2 Next
  21. 21. The Keyboard How is the keyboard divided?  Typing area  Numeric keypad  Function keys, special keys that issue commands  CD/DVD controls  Internet controls  Windows control keysp. 5.04 Fig. 5-3 Next
  22. 22. The Keyboard What are other types of keyboards?  Cordless keyboard is battery-powered and transmits data using wireless technology  Notebook and many handheld computers have built-in keyboardsp. 5.06 Fig. 5-6 Next
  23. 23. The KeyboardWhat is an ergonomic keyboard? Designed to minimize strain on hands and wrists  Ergonomics incorporates comfort, efficiency, and safety into design of items in workplace Next
  24. 24. MouseWhat is a mouse? Pointing device that fits under palm of hand  Pointing device controls mouse buttons movement of pointer, also wheel called mouse pointer button Mechanical mouse has rubber or metal ball on underside ball mouse pad Next
  25. 25. MouseWhat is an optical mouse? No moving mechanical parts inside Senses light to detect mouse’s movement More precise than mechanical mouse Connects using a cable, or wireless Next
  26. 26. Other Pointing Devices What is a trackball?  Stationary pointing device with a ball on its top  To move pointer, rotate ball with thumb, fingers, or palm of handp. 5.10 Fig. 5-12 Next
  27. 27. Other Pointing DevicesWhat are a touchpad and apointing stick? Touchpad is small, flat, rectangular pointing device sensitive to pressure and motion Pointing stick is pointing device shaped like pencil eraser positioned between keys on keyboard Some computers have both. Next
  28. 28. Other Pointing Devices What are a joystick and a wheel?  Joystick is vertical lever mounted on a base  Wheel is steering-wheel-type input device  Pedal simulates car brakes and acceleratorp. 5.11 Fig. 5-15 Next
  29. 29. Other Pointing DevicesWhat is a light pen? Handheld input device that can detect light  Press light pen against screen surface and then press button on pen  Can be used in work areas where employees’ hands may contain dirt, grease, chemicals, etc. Next
  30. 30. Other Pointing DevicesWhat is a touch screen? Touch areas of screen with finger Often used with kiosks A finger breaks the plane of an electronic grid on the screen to signal the touch point. Next
  31. 31. Other Pointing DevicesWhat is a stylus? artist using pen Looks like a ballpoint pen, but uses pressure to write text and draw lines Used with graphics tablets, flat electronic boards civil engineer using cursor  Electronic signature — legal c c signature created using special software, stylus, and graphics tablet Next
  32. 32. Other Pointing Devices Pen for computer monitorWhere is a stylus used? Some desktop computers Many mobile computers and devices  Handwriting recognition software translates Digital pen for Tablet PC handwriting into characters that computer can process Stylus for PDA Next
  33. 33. Voice InputHow does voice recognition work?Step 1. A user dictates text into a microphone. Step 2. An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) translates sound waves into digital measurements computer can process. Measurements include pitch, volume, silences, and phonemes. Phonemes are sound units such as aw and guh. 10010111010110101100001101 Step 4. To narrow a list down, software presents user with Step 3. Software compares a list of choices or uses a natural language component to spoken measurements with those predict most likely match. User may correct any selection in its database to find a match or made by software. list of possible matches. Natural Language Engine Matches Next
  34. 34. Voice InputWhat is a MIDI (musical instrumentdigital interface)? External device, such as electronic piano keyboard, to input music and sound effects Next
  35. 35. Input Devices for Mobile UsersWhat is a virtual keyboard? Projects infrared image of keyboard onto any flat surface Next
  36. 36. Digital CamerasWhat is a digital camera? Allows you to take digital pictures Images viewable immediately on camera  Download to computer via USB cable connection  Post pictures to Web sites Next
  37. 37. Digital CamerasWhat is resolution? Sharpness and clarity of image The higher the resolution, the better the image quality, but the more expensive the camera Pixel (picture element) is single point in electronic image  Greater the number of pixels, the better the image quality Next
  38. 38. Video InputWhat is video input?  Process of entering full-motion images into computer  Video capture card is adapter card that converts analog video signal into digital signal that computer can use  Digital video (DV) camera records video as digital signals Next
  39. 39. Video InputWhat are a PC video camera and a Web cam? PC video camera — DV camera used to capture video c c and still images, and to make video telephone calls on Internet  Also called PC camera Web cam — video camera c c whose output displays on a Web page Next
  40. 40. Scanners and Reading Devices FlatbedWhat is a scanner? Light-sensing device that reads printed text and Pen or graphics Handheld  Used for image processing, converting paper documents Sheet-fed into electronic images Drum Next
  41. 41. Scanners and Reading Devices How does a flatbed scanner work? Step 1. Document to be scanned is placed face down on the glass window. Step 2. Bright light moves underneath scanned document. Step 3. Image of the document is reflected into a series of mirrors.Step 4. Light isconverted to analogelectrical current thatis converted todigital signal by ananalog-to-digital Step 6. Users can print image,converter (ADC). e-mail it, include it in a document, or place it on a Web page. Step 5. Digital information is sent to memory in the computer to be used by illustration, desktop publishing, or other software; or it is stored on disk.p. 5.25 Fig. 5-33 Next
  42. 42. Scanners and Reading DevicesWhat is an optical reader? Device that uses light source to read characters, marks, and codes and then converts them into digital data  Optical character recognition (OCR) reads characters in OCR font  Optical mark recognition (OMR) reads hand-drawn pencil marks, such as small circles  Bar code scanner Next
  43. 43. Scanners and Reading Devices What is a bar code scanner?  Uses laser beams to read bar codesp. 5.27 Fig. 5-36 Next
  44. 44. Scanners and Reading Devices What is a bar code?  Identification code that consists of a set of vertical lines and spaces of different widths  Universal Product Code (UPC)p. 5.27 Fig. 5-37 Next
  45. 45. Scanners and Reading Devices What are some widely used bar codes?p. 5.28 Fig. 5-38 Next
  46. 46. Scanners and Reading Devices What is a magnetic-ink character recognition (MICR) reader?  Can read text printed with magnetized ink  Banking industry almost exclusively uses MICR for check processingp. 5.29 Fig. 5-39 Next
  47. 47. Terminals What is a point of sale (POS) terminal?  Records purchases, processes credit or debit cards, and updates inventory  Swipe credit or debit card through card reader — reads c c customer’s personal data from magnetic stripp. 5.30 Fig. 5-41 Next
  48. 48. Terminals What is an automatic teller machine (ATM)?  Self-service banking machine that connects to host computer through networkp. 5.31 Fig. 5-42 Next
  49. 49. Biometric Input What is biometrics?  Authenticates person’s identity by verifying personal characteristic  Fingerprint scanner captures curves and indentations of fingerprint  Hand geometry system measures shape and size of person’s handp. 5.32 Fig. 5-45 Next
  50. 50. Computer Output: What is Output? What is output? Data that has been processed into a useful form, called information A computer generates several types of output Text Graphics Videop. 6.2 Fig. 6-1 AudioNext
  51. 51. What is Output? What is text? Consists of characters that create words, sentences, and paragraphsWhat is a graphic?  Also called a graphical image  A digital representation of non-text information such as a drawing, chart, and photographNext
  52. 52. What is Output? What is audio? Music, speech, or any other sound  Consists of full- What is video? motion images that are played back a various speeds  Most video alsop. 6.3 Fig. 6-1 has accompanyingNext audio
  53. 53. What are Output Devices? What is an output device? Any hardware component that can convey information to a user monitor speakers printerNext
  54. 54. Display Devices What is a display device? Also called a display An output device that visually conveys text, graphics, and video informationp. 6.4Next
  55. 55. Display Devices What is a CRT monitor? Contains a cathode ray tube cathode ray tube (CRT), a large sealed, glass screen The screen is coated with tiny dots of phosphor material A pixel, or picture element, is a single point in an electronic image Three dots (red, blue, and green) combine to make up each pixel CRT monitor screenp. 6.5 Fig. 6-3Next
  56. 56. Display Devices What are typical sizes for CRT monitors? 15, 17, 19, 21, and 22 inches Monitor measured diagonally from one corner of the casing to the other The viewable size is the diagonal measurement of the actual viewing area provided by the monitorp. 6.5Next
  57. 57. Display Devices What is a liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor? A type of flat-panel display Uses liquid crystals between two sheets of material to present information on a screen An electric current passes though the crystals which creates the images on the screenp. 6.5 Fig. 6-4Next
  58. 58. Display Devices What are some devices that have LCD screens?  Notebooks  Tablet PCs  PDAs  Smart phones  Mobilesp. 6.09 Fig. 6.10 Next
  59. 59. Display Devices Where are some features of LCD screens? Lightweight and compact Consume less than one- third of the power than does a CRT monitor Come in a variety of sizes Ideal for notebook and handheld computersp. 6.6 Fig. 6-5Next
  60. 60. Display Devices What is display resolution? Describes the sharpness and clearness of an image Resolution of a display device stated as dots, or pixels 800 x 600 typically the 800 standard horizontal pixels 1280 x 1024 maximum resolution 600 vertical of most monitors pixels Total of 480,000 2048 x 1536 pixels on screen maximum forp. 6.8 high-end monitorsNext
  61. 61. Display Devices How does video travel from Step 1 Step 2 the processor to a CRT monitor? Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6p. 6.10 Fig. 6-10Next
  62. 62. Printers What is a printer? An output device that portrait orientation produces text and graphics on a physical medium such as paper or transparency film A hard copy, or printout, exists physically Two orientations landscapep. 6.12 Fig. 6-14 orientationNext
  63. 63. Printers What is a dot-matrix printer?  Impact printer that produces printed images when tiny wire pins strike ribbon  Impact printer forms characters by striking mechanism against inked ribbon that contacts paperp. 6.14 Fig. 6-17 Next
  64. 64. Printers What is a line printer?  High-speed impact printer that prints entire line at a time  Speed measured in lines per minute (lpm)  Band printer prints fully formed characters using a hammer mechanism  Shuttle-matrix printer is high-speed printer that works like dot-matrix printerp. 6.14 Fig. 6-18 Next
  65. 65. Printers What is an ink-jet printer?  A type of nonimpact printer that sprays tiny drops of liquid ink onto paper  Nonimpact printer forms characters and graphics without striking paper  Prints in black-and-white or color on a variety of paper typesp. 6.15 Fig. 6-19 Next
  66. 66. Printers What is the resolution of a printer?  Sharpness and clarity  Measured by number of dots per inch (dpi) printer can outputp. 6.16 Fig. 6-20 Next
  67. 67. Printers How does an ink-jet printer work? print cartridge nozzle print head firing resistor chamber bubble nozzle ink ink ink dot paper Step 1. A small Step 2. The Step 3. Ink Step 4. As the vapor bubbleClick to view Web Link,then click Ink-Jet Printers resistor heats the vapor bubble drops onto the collapses, fresh ink is drawn intobelow Chapter 6 ink, causing the forces the ink paper. the firing chamber. ink to boil and through the form a vapor nozzle. p. 6.17 Fig. 6-21 bubble. Next
  68. 68. Printers What is a photo printer?  Color printer that produces photo-lab-quality pictures Step 1. Take photograph with digital camera and store it on media card in the camera. Step 2. Insert media card into media card card reader on photo printer photo printer. media cards Step 3. Use menu toClick to view video select desired image to print, view it on LCD screen, edit if necessary, select size of the print,Click to view and then print image.Web Link, thenclick Photo Printersbelow Chapter 6 Step 4. Remove printed photo from the printer. p. 6.17 Fig. 6-22 Next
  69. 69. Printers What is a laser printer?  High-speed, high-quality nonimpact printer  Prints text and graphics in very high-quality resolution, ranging from 600 to 2,400 dpi  Typically costs more than ink-jet printer, but is much fasterClick to view Web Link,then click Laser Printersbelow Chapter 6 p. 6.19 Fig. 6-23 Next
  70. 70. Printers How does a laser printer work? Step 2. Rotating mirror deflects low-powered laser beam across surface of drum.Step 1. After user sends aninstruction to print a document,drum rotates as gears and rollers Step 5. Set of rollersfeed sheet of paper into printer. uses heat and pressure to permanently fuse toner to paper. Step 4. As drum continues to rotate and press against paper, toner transfers from drum to paper. Step 3. Laser beam creates a charge that causes toner top. 6.20 Fig. 6-24 stick to drum. Next
  71. 71. Printers What is a label printer?  Small printer that prints on adhesive-type material  Most also print bar codes  Postage printer has built-in digital scale and prints postage stampsp. 6.21 Fig. 6-27 Next
  72. 72. Printers What is a plotter?  Sophisticated printer used to produce high-quality drawings  Large-format printer creates photo-realistic-quality color printsp. 6.22 Fig. 6-28 Next
  73. 73. Printers What is wireless printing?  Output transmitted to printer wirelessly via infrared light waves or radio waves  BluetoothTM printing uses radio waves  Devices need to be within 30-foot rangeClick to view Web Link,then click Wireless Printingbelow Chapter 6 p. 6.22 Fig. 6-29 Next
  74. 74. Speakers and Headsets What is an audio output device?  Computer component that produces music, speech, or other sounds  Speakers and headsets are common devices subwoofer speakersClick to view Web Link,then click Speakersand Headsetsbelow Chapter 6 p. 6.23 Figs. 6-30–6-31 Next
  75. 75. Other Output Devices What is a facsimile (fax) machine?  Device that transmits and receives documents over telephone linesp. 6.25 Fig. 6-33 Next
  76. 76. Other Output Devices What is a fax modem?  Modem that allows you to send and receive electronic documents as faxes internal fax card in system unit external fax modemClick to view Web Link,then click Fax Modems fax machinebelow Chapter 6 p. 6.25 Fig. 6-34 Next
  77. 77. Other Output Devices What is a multifunction peripheral?  Provides functionality of printer, scanner, copy machine, and fax machineClick to view Web Link,then click MultifunctionPeripherals below Chapter 6 p. 6.26 Fig. 6-35 Next
  78. 78. Other Output Devices What is a data projector?  Device that takes image from computer screen and projects it onto larger screenp. 6.26 Fig. 6-36 Next