Relational Database Schema for MPEG 7 Visual Descriptors by Florian

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Images are retrieved from a repository using MPEG-7 visual descriptors. The MPEG-7 standard uses XML documents for
storing descriptors of multimedia content. The MPEG-7 standard does not define a model for mapping XML documents into a
database. However, XML documents can be considered as a database. An XML document is self-describing and portable data
collection that has a data structure of a tree or a graph. An XML document collection can be semi-structured and this quality
allows grouping XML documents without a schema that relate them. There are two possible database models: the Native XML
and the Relational. A database model for XML documents is selected based on the purpose of information use and database
requirements. In this paper, both models are described and analysed. A relational database schema is designed for mapping
MPEG-7 visual descriptors into a database

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Relational Database Schema for MPEG 7 Visual Descriptors by Florian

  1. 1. Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Authors: Margareth Florián María Trujillo 15-05-2008
  2. 2. Motivation CBIR: Content based image retrieval Manual annotation Automatic annotation Subjective Objective Context Knowledge Consistence Key words Description MPEG-7 TitleIt does not provide a model for mapping MPEG-7 descriptors into a database system. Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 2 / 23
  3. 3. ContentMPEG-7 MPEG-7 MPEG-7 descriptors MPEG-7 storage specificationDatabase Models Native XML Relational – XML ExtendedSchema for MPEG-7 visual descriptors Selected Database Model Proposed Database Schema Theoretical Validation Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 3 / 23
  4. 4. MPEG-7 (I) MPEG-7The MPEG-7 is a standard for description of multimedia content. Searching Filtering Managing ProcessingDescriptor: describe individual features of multimedia content.MPEG-7 media = XML documents + media descriptions Schemes descriptors Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 4 / 23
  5. 5. MPEG-7 (II)MPEG-7 descriptorsColor Descriptors Motion Descriptors Dominant Color Camera Motion Scalable Color Motion Trajectory Color Layout Parametric Motion Color Structure Motion ActivityTexture Descriptors Localization Homogenous Texture Region Locator Texture Browsing Spatio Temporal Locator Edge Histogram OthersShape Descriptors Face Recognition Region Shape Contour Shape Shape 3D Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 5 / 23
  6. 6. MPEG-7 (III) MPEG-7 visual descriptorsColor descriptor: Dominant Color Image generated Original image with 8 dominant colours Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 6 / 23
  7. 7. MPEG-7 (IV) MPEG-7 visual descriptorsColor descriptor: Dominant Color <?xml version=1.0 encoding=ISO-8859-1 ?> <Mpeg7 xmlns = "urn:mpeg:mpeg7:schema:2001" xmlns:xml = "http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" xmlns:xsi = "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:mpeg7 = "urn:mpeg:mpeg7:schema:2001" xsi:schemaLocation = "urn:mpeg:mpeg7:schema:2001 Mpeg7-2001.xsd"> <DescriptionUnit xsi:type = "DescriptorCollectionType"> <Descriptor xsi:type = "DominantColorType"> <SpatialCoherency>0</SpatialCoherency> <Value> <Percentage>3</Percentage> Dominant colour Quantised dominant colour value <Index>13 17 20 </Index> Percentage: Pixel percentage represented by the colour </Value> Spatial Coherency : Not computed <Value> <Percentage>3</Percentage> <Index>4 4 2 </Index> </Value> <Value> <Percentage>5</Percentage> <Index>15 16 8 </Index> </Value> +<Value> +<Value> +<Value> +<Value> </Descriptor> </DescriptionUnit> </Mpeg7> Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 7 / 23
  8. 8. MPEG-7 (V) MPEG-7 visual descriptorsColor descriptor: Color Layout Original image Image generated with spatial colour structure Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 8 / 23
  9. 9. MPEG-7 (VI) MPEG-7 visual descriptorsColor descriptor: Color Layout <?xml version=1.0 encoding=ISO-8859-1 ?> <Mpeg7 xmlns = "urn:mpeg:mpeg7:schema:2001" xmlns:xml = "http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" xmlns:xsi = "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:mpeg7 = "urn:mpeg:mpeg7:schema:2001" xsi:schemaLocation = "urn:mpeg:mpeg7:schema:2001 Mpeg7-2001.xsd"> <VisualDescriptor xsi:type="ColorLayoutType"> <YDCCoeff>29</YDCCoeff> <CbDCCoeff>18</CbDCCoeff> <CrDCCoeff>27</CrDCCoeff> <YACCoeff63>18 26 24 12 12 17 13 16 15 13 14 17 15 12 15 16 14 17 15 12 15 16 16 16 18 16 15 15 15 17 15 16 16 15 15 16 14 15 16 14 15 16 16 17 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 15 15 16 15 16 15 15 16 16 16</YACCoeff63> <CbACCoeff63>13 26 25 18 15 12 17 16 16 15 18 14 18 18 18 15 16 18 17 14 15 14 15 16 13 14 16 17 15 16 17 15 17 16 16 13 15 16 15 15 16 15 15 15 16 16 16 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 15 15 16 16 16 15 16</CbACCoeff63> <CrACCoeff63>14 9 9 15 15 17 16 17 15 16 15 16 15 14 16 16 15 15 15 17 16 15 15 15 17 16 15 15 16 14 15 16 15 17 17 16 16 16 15 16 16 16 16 16 16 15 15 15 16 16 15 15 16 15 16 15 15 16 15 16 15 16 15</CrACCoeff63> </VisualDescriptor> </DescriptionUnit> </Mpeg7> Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 9 / 23
  10. 10. MPEG-7 (VII)MPEG-7 storage specification XML document Images BinarySound Text document MovieMultiple Media Extracting descriptors process Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 10 / 23
  11. 11. MPEG-7 (VIII) MPEG-7 storage specification XML document per image XML document per descriptor <?xml version=1.0 encoding=ISO-8859-1 ?> <?xml version=1.0 encoding=ISO-8859-1 ?> <Mpeg7 xmlns = "urn:mpeg:mpeg7:schema:2001" <Mpeg7 xmlns = "urn:mpeg:mpeg7:schema:2001" xmlns:namespace = "http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" xmlns:namespace = "http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace" xmlns:xsi = "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:xsi = "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:mpeg7 = "urn:mpeg:mpeg7:schema:2001" xmlns:mpeg7 = "urn:mpeg:mpeg7:schema:2001" xsi:schemaLocation = "urn:mpeg:mpeg7:schema: 2001 Mpeg7-2001.xsd"> xsi:schemaLocation = "urn:mpeg:mpeg7:schema: <DescriptionUnit xsi:type = "DescriptorCollectionType"> 2001 Mpeg7-2001.xsd"> <Descriptor xsi:type = "DominantColorType"> <DescriptionUnit xsi:type = "DescriptorCollectionType">Dominant-color <SpatialCoherency>0</SpatialCoherency> <Descriptor xsi:type = "EdgeHistogramType"> Image 1 <Value><Percentage>8</Percentage> <BinCounts>3 6 3 4 3 0 5 4 3 4 1 5 1 0 2 4 3 <Index>4 4 5 </Index> 5 6 2 4 5 6 5 2 4 5 5 7 3 4 5 6 5 4 2 6 6 4 </Value> 4 5 5 5 3 5 3 5 5 4 2 5 6 5 3 5 2 3 4 2 4 2 <Value><Percentage>17</Percentage> <Index>12 12 12 </Index> </BinCounts> </Value> </Descriptor> <Value><Percentage>4</Percentage> <Index>27 26 27 </Index> </DescriptionUnit> </Value> <DescriptionUnit xsi:type = "DescriptorCollectionType"> </Descriptor> <Descriptor xsi:type = "EdgeHistogramType"> Image 2 </DescriptionUnit> <BinCounts>4 3 4 1 5 1 0 2 4 3 5 5 4 2 5 6 5 3 5 2 3 5 6 2 4 5 6 3 6 3 4 3 0 55 2 4 5 5 76 6 4Edge-histogram <DescriptionUnit xsi:type = "DescriptorCollectionType"> <Descriptor xsi:type = "EdgeHistogramType"> 4 5 5 5 3 5 3 4 2 4 23 4 5 6 5 4 2 <BinCounts>3 6 3 4 3 0 5 4 3 4 1 5 1 0 2 4 3 </BinCounts> 5 6 2 4 5 6 5 2 4 5 5 7 3 4 5 6 5 4 2 6 6 4 </Descriptor> 4 5 5 5 3 5 3 5 5 4 2 5 6 5 3 5 2 3 4 2 4 2 </DescriptionUnit> </BinCounts> </Mpeg7> </Descriptor> </DescriptionUnit> </Mpeg7> Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 11 / 23
  12. 12. ContentMPEG-7 MPEG-7 MPEG-7 descriptors MPEG-7 storage specificationDatabase Models Native XML Relational – XML ExtendedSchema for MPEG-7 visual descriptors Selected Database Model Proposed Database Schema Theoretical Validation Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 12 / 23
  13. 13. Database Models (I) Native XML Hard Disk i_1 i_2 Database i_4 i_3Relation collection of documentsRow document Physical pointers to inside sections Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 13 / 23
  14. 14. Database Models (II)Native XML - featuresSemi-structured data Schema independency : collection could store documents without a schema that relates them.Preserve document order, processing instructions, and comments Commonly used to store document-centric XML documentsQuery optimisation Examines both the content and the structural part of XML data Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 14 / 23
  15. 15. Database Models (III)Relational – XML Extended Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 15 / 23
  16. 16. Database Models (IV) Relational – XML Extended<?xml version=1.0 encoding=ISO-8859-1 ?><Mpeg7 xmlns = "urn:mpeg:mpeg7:schema:2001" g pinxmlns:namespace = "http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace"xmlns:xsi = "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" Relational apxmlns:mpeg7 = "urn:mpeg:mpeg7:schema:2001" databasexsi:schemaLocation = "urn:mpeg:mpeg7:schema: 2001 Mpeg7-2001.xsd"> m<DescriptionUnit xsi:type = "DescriptorCollectionType"> el-<Descriptor xsi:type = "DominantColorType"> object-based od<SpatialCoherency>0</SpatialCoherency> M<Value><Percentage>8</Percentage><Index>4 4 5 </Index> No limitations</Value><Value><Percentage>17</Percentage> <Index>12 12 12 </Index></Value><Value><Percentage>4</Percentage> <Index>27 26 27 </Index></Value> Structured-mapping</Descriptor></DescriptionUnit><DescriptionUnit xsi:type = "DescriptorCollectionType"><Descriptor xsi:type = "EdgeHistogramType"> mapping Relational<BinCounts>3 6 3 4 3 0 5 4 3 4 1 5 1 0 2 4 3 Through XML database5 6 2 4 5 6 5 2 4 5 5 7 3 4 5 6 5 4 2 6 6 44 5 5 5 3 5 3 5 5 4 2 5 6 5 3 5 2 3 4 2 4 2 document</BinCounts> meta-model Table-based</Descriptor></DescriptionUnit> Require structured</Mpeg7> collections XML document Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 16 / 23
  17. 17. Database Models (V) Relational – XML Extended – Model Mapping All path list LabelPath LabelPathPK Parent-child Len relationship Path Element DataPath DataMap into five NodeIdPK NodeIdPK NodeIdPKrelational LabelPathFK NodeIdFK LabelPathFKtables Ordinal Ordinal Value Value of each leaf node Ancestor NodeIdPK ancestor-descendant NodeIdPK Easy to reconstruct relationship Level the data back into XML format Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 17 / 23
  18. 18. Database Models (VI) Relational – XML Extended – Structured Mapping Dominant color descriptor schema DescriptionUnit Mpeg7 XMLDBMSKey DescriptionUnitPK Mpeg7PK HighKey Mpeg7FK xmlns:xsi Integer xsi:type xmlns Descriptor Values DescriptorPK DescriptorFK DescriptionUnitFK ColorValueIndex SpatialCoherency PercentageBased on ColorSpace xsi:type ColorVariance sizeXML Schema DescriptorFK Type colorReferenceFlag ColorQuantization ColorQuantizationPK DescriptorFK NumOfBins Component ColorQuantizationFK ColorQuantizationFK NumOfBins Component Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 18 / 23
  19. 19. ContentMPEG-7 MPEG-7 MPEG-7 descriptors MPEG-7 storage specificationDatabase Models Native XML Relational – XML ExtendedSchema for MPEG-7 visual descriptors Selected Database Model Proposed Database Schema Theoretical Validation Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 19 / 23
  20. 20. Schema for MPEG-7 visual descriptors Selected Database Model The MPEG-7 has a structured XML scheme for each descriptor XML documents for MPEG-7 descriptors are data-centric document : yes : no ~: low performance Relational Native XML databases Databases Manage XML SchemasXML structure is staticand well defined Structured data Querying data efficiently ~data-centric documents Aggregated functions Manage large data ~Number of the imagesgrows exponentially Distribution Capability ~Multi-user access support User concurrency ~ Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 20 / 23
  21. 21. Schema for MPEG-7 visual descriptors Proposed Database schema sos_DedgeHistogram Imagen_id 1 1 DedgeHistogram_group1sos_DcolorStructure 1 DedgeHistogram_group2 Imagen_id sos_image DedgeHistogram_group3 DcolorStructure_values DedgeHistogram_group4 Imagen_id DedgeHistogram_group5 1 Imagen_nombre 1 DedgeHistogram_group6 Imagen_fecha Imagen_url/file Imagen_tamano …. 1 sos_DcolorLayout Imagen_id 1 DcolorLayout_YDCCoeff 1 DcolorLayout_CbDCCoeff sos_DdominantColor DcolorLayout_CrDCCoeff DcolorLayout_YACCoeff5 Imagen_id DcolorLayout_CbACCoeff2 DdominantColor_ColoursNumber DcolorLayout_CrACCoeff2 DdominantColor_descriptor Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 21 / 23
  22. 22. Schema for MPEG-7 visual descriptors Theoretical Validation Structured-mapping Proposed mapping π Mpeg7PK π image_url/file (dist(|Iinput - π ColorValueIndex, Percentage, ColorVariance |)<umbral) image_id=image_id DescriptorFK=DescriptorPK (dist(|Iinput- dc.Idb|)<umbral) sos_image π DescriptionUnitFK,xsi:type π DescriptorFK,xsi:type sos_DdominantColor Xsi:type=‘DominantColorType’ Values Π : projection (select) : join (from) : selection (where)π DescriptionUnitPK Descriptor DescriptionUnit Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 22 / 23
  23. 23. Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Authors: Margareth Florián, María Trujillo MPEG-7 MPEG-7 descriptors MPEG-7 storage specification Native XML model Relational model – XML Extended Database model Proposed database schema Theoretical validation Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 23 / 23
  24. 24. Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 24 / 23
  25. 25. MPEG-7 SOS User options Output: search resultImages storage Retrieval information Multimedia Query by Example View-Based resource User input an image search User interface (WEB Portal) HTTPAnnotation Web Services Information Feature extraction retrievalAutomatic – Textual Web Services MPEG-7 descriptions Storage Web Services Mapping to Database database querying MPEG-7 Manual descriptors Annotation Web Services Infrastructure Relational Database Schema for MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors Slide 25 / 23

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