▪ India's North East is a land of undulating hills and plains with luxuriant green cover and a wide
variety or rare and exotic flora and fauna.
▪ It comprises the contiguous seven sisters states ( Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur,
Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura), and the Himalayan state of Sikkim.
▪ Northeast India constitutes about 8% of India's size. Its population is approximately 40 million
(2011 census), 3.1% of the total Indian population.
▪ The states are officially recognised under the North Eastern Council (NEC) constituted in 1971
as the acting agency for the development of the eight states.
▪ The Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER) was set up in September 2001
ARUNACHAL PRADESH: The Land of Dawn-lit Mountains
▪ Arunachal Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India holding the most north-eastern position among the
other states in the north-east region of India.
▪ Arunachal Pradesh borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south, and shares international
borders with Bhutan in the west, Myanmar in the east and China in the north.
▪ Itanagar is the capital of the state.
▪ Arunachal Pradesh is also known as the Orchid State of India or the Paradise of the Botanists.
▪ As in other parts of Northeast India, the people native to the state trace their origins from the Tibeto-
▪ Population (2011): 1,382,611
▪ Literacy: 66.95%
▪ Official language: English
▪ Established: 20 February 1987
MANIPUR: The Jewel of India
• Manipur, located in a lush green corner of North East India, is an oval shaped valley
surrounded by nine ranges of bluish green hills intertwined with cascading rapids,
carpets of flowers and lazy lakes.
• The people and tribes of Manipur include Meiteis, Nagas, KukiChinMizo groups,
Gorkhas, MeiteiPangals and many other colourful communities who have coexisted
in complete harmony for centuries.
• These are people whose folklore, myths and legends, dances, indigenous games and
martial arts, exotic handlooms, handicrafts and fine arts are invested with the
mystique of nature.
• Manipur is a mosaic of ancient traditions and rich cultural patterns.
• Population (2011): 2,388,634
• Literacy: 68.87%
• Official language: Manipuri
• Religion: Vaishnavite Hindu
MEGHALAYA: The abode of clouds
▪ Endowed with incredible natural beauty, Meghalaya is one of the most beautiful states in Northeast
▪ This state is bounded to the south and the west by the People's Republic of Bangladesh and the north and
the east by India's Assam state. The capital is Shillong, known as the "Scotland of the East".
▪ Meghalaya was previously part of Assam, but on 21 January 1972, the districts of Khasi, Garo and
Jaintia hills became the new state of Meghalaya.
▪ The state is the wettest region of India, recording an average of 1200 cm of rains a year. About 70% of
the state is forested.
▪ Meghalaya has predominantly an agrarian economy with a significant commercial forestry industry.
▪ Established: 21 January 1972
▪ Population (2011): 2,964,007
▪ Literacy: 75.84%
▪ Official language: English
▪ Mizoram is one of the states of Northeast India, with Aizawl as its capital. The name is derived
from Mi (people), Zo (hill) and Ram (land), and thus Mizoram implies "land of the hill people".
▪ Like several other north-eastern states of India, Mizoram was previously part of Assam until
1972, when it was carved out as a Union Territory.
▪ About 95% of current Mizoram population is of diverse tribal origins who settled in the state,
mostly from southeast Asia, over waves of migration starting about 16th century but mainly in
▪ Mizoram is a highly literate agrarian economy, but suffers from slash-and-burn jhum or shifting
cultivation, and poor crop yields.
▪ The state's gross state domestic product for 2012 was estimated at 6991 crore (US$1.1 billion).
About 20% of Mizoram's population lives below poverty line, with 35% rural poverty.
NAGALAND: The land of festivals
• Nagaland is a state in the far north-eastern part of India. It borders the state of Assam to the
west, Arunachal Pradesh and part of Assam to the north, Myanmar to the east and Manipur to
• It has an area of 16,579 km2 with a population of 1,980,602 as per the2011 census, making it
one of the smallest states of India.
• The state is inhabited by 16 major tribes - Ao, Angami, Chang, Konyak, Lotha, Sumi,
Chakhesang, Khiamniungan, Kachari, Phom, Rengma, Sangtam, Yimchungrü, Kuki, Zeliang
and Pochury as well as a number of sub-tribes.
• Nagaland became the 16th state of the Indian Union on 1 December 1963.
• Agriculture is the most important economic activity and the principal crops include rice, corn,
millets, pulses, tobacco, oilseeds, sugarcane, potatoes, and fibres.
TRIPURA: A place of satiety
▪ Tripura a state in Northeast India. The third-smallest state in the country and is bordered by
Bangladesh(East Bengal) to the north, south, and west, and the Indian states of Assam and
Mizoram to the east.
▪ The Kokborok speaking Tripuri people are the major group among 19 tribes and many sub-
▪ The area of modern Tripura was ruled for several centuries by the Tripuri dynasty.
▪ Forests cover more than half of the state, in which bamboo and cane tracts are common.
Tripura has the highest number of primate species found in any Indian state.
▪ Most residents are involved in agriculture and allied activities, although the service sector is
the largest contributor to the state's gross domestic product.
SMALL BUT BEAUTIFUL▪ SDFF
▪ Sikkim is a landlocked Indian state located in the
Himalayan mountains. The state is bordered by Nepal to
the west, China's Tibet Autonomous Region to the north
and east, and Bhutan to the east.
▪ On May 15, 1975 the President of India ratified a
constitutional amendment that made Sikkim the 22nd
state of India.
▪ According to legend, the Buddhist guru Padmasambhava
visited Sikkim in the 8th century AD, introduced
Buddhism and foretold the era of the Sikkimese
▪ Population (2011): 610,577
▪ Literacy: 82.2%
▪ Official language: Nepali
▪ Located south of the eastern Himalayas, Assam (Asom, Axom) comprises the Brahmaputra Valley
and the Barak river valleys along with the Karbi Anglong and the North Cachar Hills with an area
of 78,438 km².
▪ Assam is surrounded by six of the other: Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram,
Tripura, and Meghalaya.
▪ Geographically Assam and these states are connected to the rest of India via a strip of land in West
Bengal called the Siliguri Corridor or "Chicken's Neck".
▪ Assam shares international borders with Bhutan and Bangladesh; and cultures, peoples and climate
with South-East Asia.
FLORA AND FAUNA:
▪ Assam is one of the richest biodiversity zones in the world and consists of tropical rainforests,
deciduous forests, riverine grasslands, bamboo orchards and numerous wetland ecosystems; Many
are now protected as national parks and reserved forests.
▪ Assam has wildlife sanctuaries, the most prominent of which are two UNESCO World Heritage
sites the Kaziranga National Park, on the bank of the Brahmaputra River, and the Manas Wildlife
Sanctuary, near the border with Bhutan.
▪ The Kaziranga is refuges for the fast-disappearing Indian one-horned rhinoceros.
▪ The state is the last refuge for numerous other endangered and threatened species including the
White-winged Wood Duck or Deohanh, Bengal Florican, Black-breasted Parrotbill, Red-headed
vulture, White-rumped vulture etc.
▪ Bihu is the most important and common and celebrated all over Assam. It is the Assamese new year
celebrated in April of the Gregorian calendar.
▪ Durga Puja is another festival celebrated with great enthusiasm. Muslims celebrate two Eids (Eid ul-
Fitr and Eid al-Adha) with much eagerness all over Assam.
▪ Bwisagu is one of the popular seasonal festival of the Bodos.
▪ Bushu Dima or simply Bushu is a major harvest festival of the Dimasa people. This festival is
celebrated during the end of January.
▪ Moreover, there are some other important traditional festivals-
•Awnkham Gwrlwi Janai
Assam has enjoyed a reputation for unspoiled natural beauty, substantial biodiversity, tea plantations,
and friendly people.
Guwahati: Kamakhya Temple, Shankardev Kalakshetra, Umananda Temple, Assam State Zoo etc.
Majuli: Majuli is famous for its Vaishnavite Satras.
Kaziranga National Park: This protected area is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and serves as one
of the last remaining habitat of the Great Indian One-horned Rhinoceros.
Jatinga: This village is famous for mysterious suicides of the birds, located in Dima Hasao.
Sonitpur: Nameri National Park, Sonai Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary, Orang National Park
,Agnigarh, Mahabhairav Temple etc.
Sivasagar: Rang Ghar, Talatal Ghar, Sivadol, Kareng Ghar of Garhgaon etc.
▪ The Bodo Kachari Tribes
▪ The Mishing Tribe
▪ The Deori Tribes
▪ The Rabha Tribes
▪ The Tiwa or Lalung Tribes
▪ The khamti Tribe
▪ The Sonowal Kachari Tribes
▪ The Tai_Phake or Phakial Tribes
▪ The Dimasa Kachari Tribes
▪ The Karbi Tribe
▪ The Barmans of Cachar
▪ The Hmar Tribe
▪ The Kuki Tribe
▪ The Rengma Naga Tribes
▪ Zeme Nagas
▪ The Hajong Tribe
▪ The Garo Tribe
▪ The Khasi Tribe
▪ The Jaintia Tribe
▪ The Mech Tribe:
Assam is land of many cultures, tribes
and religions. Therefore, when we speak
of the culture of Assam, we generally
refer to a composite and complex
phenomenon that includes the cultures of
the various tribes that make Assam their