The National Archives of Hungary
Celebrated the 250th. Anniversary in 2006.
We try to keep every element of archival work which is
strictly connected with history and historical researches.
Nowdays, archival work has to conform to the needs of
the society and the citizens in connection with scientific
researches, family history or the accesibility of legal
The departments fullfil more than thousand written and
verbal claims in relation on the archival collections.
Zoltán Kodály was born in 1882 at Kecskemét
His father was a railway-workman, his mother
worked in a restaurant
In his childhood the family moved a lot:
Galánta -folklore studies
Nagyszombat - music studies: violin, cello, piano
big success in composing
In 1900 he finished his high school studies and he moved to
He enrolled at Academy of Music (composer) and also at faculty of
In 1904 and 1905 he received his diplomes (composer and teacher
of Hungarian and German)
In 1905 he started to collect folksongs, became best friend with Béla
In 1907 he was appointed as teacher
at the Academy of Music
In 1910 he married Emma Sándor
In 1923 ha wrote Psalmus Hungaricus
and continued his teaching work,
he wrote for children many pieces of music
(The Straw Guy, See,
the Gypsy Munching Cheese)
In 1924 he wrote János Háry,
which was a huge success
1926-32 he wrote Spinning Room, Dances of Galanta, Te Deum of
Budavar, Missa Brevis, and many other chorals.
In 1958 his wife died.
Till his death he received many honors, composed a lot and was
interested in music education
Zoltán Kodály died in 1967 in Budapest
The Kodaly Method
Before Kodály, Hungarian music education was influenced by the
German way, children didn’t know any about Hungarian folk music
Kodály’s principles started to evolve during his French and English
Kodály idea was to make the folk music to children’s musical mother
– language, then, when the child acquired his own musical –
language than he can start singing other nations melodies
Kodály thought that choral singing is important in music education,
he wrote many pieces of chorals for children, and he also asked
other composers to write melodies for children
According to Kodály music is accesible by anybody, music belongs
His main thoughts were:
3. In education music has to be in an important position (as it was in
4. Musical illiteracy is widespred in the country, that detains the
development of music culture.
5. Primary-school teachers have a big responsability in music
education, so they should be well qualified.
6. Children should make difference between valuable and valueless
music and teachers should help them in this work. We should
start it in early age, because decisive experinces comes between
the ages of 6-16. When the child had grown up, it’s too late.
7. School must guarantee musical experiences for children.
8. Children should sing every day.
9. Music is accessible by everybody with the help of human voice,
1 Kodály thoght that choral singing is also very important: it gives
the children joy and it helps in the evolution of clear singing.
2 When the child owns his musical mother-language, he can study
other melodies: first the songs of relative folks (mari, chuvash).
Then the child can sing further songs (for example western)
which is very important in choral singing.
In 1937 Kodály was interested especially in choral singing. His main
thoughts about this were:
6 The piano isn’t appropriate for setting the sitch or for
accompaniment, because it’s a tempered instument
7 Melodies should be sung, not presented on the piano.
8 The members of the choir should read notes well, this is the way
from musical illeteracy to musical culture. That’s why piano
shouldn’t show the melody.
Music in kindergarden
Kodály also dealed with little children.
In 1941 appeared his work called Music in kindergarden
He stresses the importance of musical education, because it also
develops the child’s concentration, emotional and physical
That’s why different areas should be combined
Music has a big importance in the expansion of mother-language
Teaching of instruments
From 1945 before a child starts learning to play on an instrument,
the child should go to a preparatory class
Here the child get acquainted with elementary music cognition
(rhythm, hearing ang singing exercises based on folk music,
Kodály thought that a musican should hear, feel the song before the
musican play it on his instrument.
They should sing the song from the note without the help of the
He conceived what are the virtues of a good musican:
good hearing, big intelligence, good heart, good hand
He emphasized the importance of Bach’s fugues and he also wrote
exercies fer piano (24 Little Canons on the Black Keys)
Use of the Kodaly Method
Three important tools:
This is not a Hungarian invention, Guido Arezzo used a Latin
hymn to name
With a little changes came into being the following sol–fa
DOH, REY, ME, FAH, SOH, LAH, TE
Sharpened FAH becomes FE, and flattened TE becomes TA
France Emile Chevé used sol-fa in France
Little children always start with SOH – ME and SOH – LAH sol–
fa names because of their range of voice, after come more
Kodály uses relative sol–fa:
DOH considered to be the keynote in all maxor keys
LAH considered to be de keynote in all minor keys
It focuses on the relationship among pithces
Children get used to the sound of DOH – SOH so later it
will be easy for them to recognize a quint
International use of the Kodaly Method
In 1958 at the ISME conference Ádám Jenő kept a presentation
about Hungarian music aducation
First Heino Kaljuste, than Russian Weisz, Helen Richars, Chailley
Hani Kjoko adopted thet method
From 1965 music teachers come to Hungary to learn the new
In some country there were difficultes with the names of the sol – fa.
In Russia they use the following names:
JO – LE – MI – NA – SO – RA – DI
Examples of Kodály - adaptation
1. Greek music lesson:
– Evangelor Fangar before presenting a song, taugth the students
to the rythm of 7/8, with a clapping exercise
– When there was no problem with the rythm the teacher sang the
melody (while childre are clapping)
– Finally the teacher played the guitar while the children were
dancing and singing
2. Brazilian music lesson:
– C. Gerson music teacher taught a folk – song
– First he presented it with clapping exercises
– When the students get used to it, he claped an other ostinato
– Then he taught some dance steps of folk – dance
– The student were saying the rythm names and dancing
– After they sang it with sol–fa names, than finally with the lyrics
The art of Turkish tiles and ceramics occupies a place of prominence in
the history of Islamic art.
The art of Turkish tile and ceramic-making developed over the
centuries incorporating many different techniques and styles. Efforts
are also being made in private workshops and educational
institutions in Iznik, Istanbul, and Bursa to keep the art of traditional
Turkish tiles and ceramics alive and develop it so that it can
address the demands of modern-day life.
His phylosophy reflects universal principles for humanity “Come, come
whatever you are, it doesn't matter whether you are an infidel, an
idolater or a fire-worshiper, Come, our convent is not a place of
despair. Come, even if you violated your swear a hundred
times,come again. Hz. Mevlana”
Multidisciplinar and pluridisciplinar
Provide social sciences knowledge
Visualize practices of the every day life and the social and cultural
history of events
Present contemporary situations and problems
“An international centre for reflecting on society, a museum in a
global world that recreate virtual trips to past and future”
EL CAMP DE LA BOTA
by Francesc Abad
This is a project on a public building and its social and political dimensions,
which concern us all : an enormous concrete tombstone at the end of
quot;Diagonalquot;, the main road in Barcelona, which has a water purification plant
below it and will now be the site of an immense sixty hectare esplanade
with sea views. It's been chosen to host visitors to the quot;Forum 2004quot;
exhibition which include workshops, concerts, and a leisure zone as its main
attractions. Beneath this enormous tombstone was, quot;El Camp de la Botaquot;, a
site where more than 1,700 were killed during the franquist repression.
Memory | This tragic historical site, buried in the loss of everything objective
and in patriotism, is known in Catalonia's history as quot;The Parapetquot;. It was a
wall, an enormous structure positioned diagonally to the seafront in a barren
location. You could get there via a road that led to the beach where the
firing squad undertook their job of excecution.
A lot of persons in the Netherlands are doing familyresearch. By
creating a familytree the tangible heritage (pictures, family bible and
old documents) can be linked to the intangible heritage (stories
about ancestors). This way you can show our culture from a
One of the best know pictures in the world
Linking Dutch culture in the 17th century to tangible heritage
It is national heritage that became global heritage