Linking cultures and tangible and
       intangible heritage
  Examples from different countries in Europe
A lot of times a culture and the tangible
and intangible heritage are linked in many
ways.
These examples can be used to e...
Examples from Hungary
The National Archives of Hungary
 Celebrated the 250th. Anniversary in 2006.
 We try to keep every element of archival wor...
THE KODALY METHOD
Zoltán Kodály was born in 1882 at Kecskemét
His father was a railway-workman, his mother
worked in a restaurant
In his chi...
In 1907 he was appointed as teacher
at the Academy of Music
In 1910 he married Emma Sándor
In 1923 ha wrote Psalmus Hungar...
The Kodaly Method
Basic conception

  Before Kodály, Hungarian music education was influenced by the
  German way, childre...
His main thoughts were:

3.   In education music has to be in an important position (as it was in
     ancient Greece)
4. ...
1    Kodály thoght that choral singing is also very important: it gives
     the children joy and it helps in the evolutio...
Music in kindergarden
Kodály also dealed with little children.
In 1941 appeared his work called Music in kindergarden
He s...
Teaching of instruments
From 1945 before a child starts learning to play on an instrument,
the child should go to a prepar...
Use of the Kodaly Method
Three important tools:
2.    Sol-fa
        This is not a Hungarian invention, Guido Arezzo used...
 Little children always start with SOH – ME and SOH – LAH sol–
  fa names because of their range of voice, after come mor...
International use of the Kodaly Method
 In 1958 at the ISME conference Ádám Jenő kept a presentation
 about Hungarian musi...
Examples of Kodály - adaptation
 1. Greek music lesson:

 – Evangelor Fangar before presenting a song, taugth the students...
2. Brazilian music lesson:

 –   C. Gerson music teacher taught a folk – song
 –   First he presented it with clapping exe...
Examples from Turkey
Iznik Ceramics
and Tiles
The art of Turkish tiles and ceramics occupies a place of prominence in
   the history of Islamic...
Mevlana
His phylosophy reflects universal principles for humanity “Come, come
  whatever you are, it doesn't matter whethe...
Examples from Barcelona
Society Museums

 Multidisciplinar and pluridisciplinar
 Provide social sciences knowledge
 Visualize practices of the eve...
EL CAMP DE LA BOTA
by Francesc Abad
 This is a project on a public building and its social and political dimensions,
 whic...
Examples from the Netherlands
Family history
 A lot of persons in the Netherlands are doing familyresearch. By
 creating a familytree the tangible herit...
Rembrandt
 One of the best know pictures in the world
 Linking Dutch culture in the 17th century to tangible heritage
 (pa...
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Linking C Heritage

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Linking C Heritage

  1. 1. Linking cultures and tangible and intangible heritage Examples from different countries in Europe
  2. 2. A lot of times a culture and the tangible and intangible heritage are linked in many ways. These examples can be used to explane the importants of heritage and culture.
  3. 3. Examples from Hungary
  4. 4. The National Archives of Hungary Celebrated the 250th. Anniversary in 2006. We try to keep every element of archival work which is strictly connected with history and historical researches. Nowdays, archival work has to conform to the needs of the society and the citizens in connection with scientific researches, family history or the accesibility of legal documents. The departments fullfil more than thousand written and verbal claims in relation on the archival collections.
  5. 5. THE KODALY METHOD
  6. 6. Zoltán Kodály was born in 1882 at Kecskemét His father was a railway-workman, his mother worked in a restaurant In his childhood the family moved a lot: Szob Galánta -folklore studies Nagyszombat - music studies: violin, cello, piano big success in composing In 1900 he finished his high school studies and he moved to Budapest He enrolled at Academy of Music (composer) and also at faculty of arts (Hungary-German) In 1904 and 1905 he received his diplomes (composer and teacher of Hungarian and German) In 1905 he started to collect folksongs, became best friend with Béla Bartók
  7. 7. In 1907 he was appointed as teacher at the Academy of Music In 1910 he married Emma Sándor In 1923 ha wrote Psalmus Hungaricus and continued his teaching work, he wrote for children many pieces of music (The Straw Guy, See, the Gypsy Munching Cheese) In 1924 he wrote János Háry, which was a huge success 1926-32 he wrote Spinning Room, Dances of Galanta, Te Deum of Budavar, Missa Brevis, and many other chorals. In 1958 his wife died. Till his death he received many honors, composed a lot and was interested in music education Zoltán Kodály died in 1967 in Budapest
  8. 8. The Kodaly Method Basic conception Before Kodály, Hungarian music education was influenced by the German way, children didn’t know any about Hungarian folk music Kodály’s principles started to evolve during his French and English trip Kodály idea was to make the folk music to children’s musical mother – language, then, when the child acquired his own musical – language than he can start singing other nations melodies Kodály thought that choral singing is important in music education, he wrote many pieces of chorals for children, and he also asked other composers to write melodies for children According to Kodály music is accesible by anybody, music belongs to everybody
  9. 9. His main thoughts were: 3. In education music has to be in an important position (as it was in ancient Greece) 4. Musical illiteracy is widespred in the country, that detains the development of music culture. 5. Primary-school teachers have a big responsability in music education, so they should be well qualified. 6. Children should make difference between valuable and valueless music and teachers should help them in this work. We should start it in early age, because decisive experinces comes between the ages of 6-16. When the child had grown up, it’s too late. 7. School must guarantee musical experiences for children. 8. Children should sing every day. 9. Music is accessible by everybody with the help of human voice, with singing.
  10. 10. 1 Kodály thoght that choral singing is also very important: it gives the children joy and it helps in the evolution of clear singing. 2 When the child owns his musical mother-language, he can study other melodies: first the songs of relative folks (mari, chuvash). Then the child can sing further songs (for example western) which is very important in choral singing. In 1937 Kodály was interested especially in choral singing. His main thoughts about this were: 6 The piano isn’t appropriate for setting the sitch or for accompaniment, because it’s a tempered instument 7 Melodies should be sung, not presented on the piano. 8 The members of the choir should read notes well, this is the way from musical illeteracy to musical culture. That’s why piano shouldn’t show the melody.
  11. 11. Music in kindergarden Kodály also dealed with little children. In 1941 appeared his work called Music in kindergarden He stresses the importance of musical education, because it also develops the child’s concentration, emotional and physical advancement That’s why different areas should be combined Music has a big importance in the expansion of mother-language
  12. 12. Teaching of instruments From 1945 before a child starts learning to play on an instrument, the child should go to a preparatory class Here the child get acquainted with elementary music cognition (rhythm, hearing ang singing exercises based on folk music, reading exercises) Kodály thought that a musican should hear, feel the song before the musican play it on his instrument. They should sing the song from the note without the help of the instrument. He conceived what are the virtues of a good musican: good hearing, big intelligence, good heart, good hand He emphasized the importance of Bach’s fugues and he also wrote exercies fer piano (24 Little Canons on the Black Keys)
  13. 13. Use of the Kodaly Method Three important tools: 2. Sol-fa  This is not a Hungarian invention, Guido Arezzo used a Latin hymn to name  With a little changes came into being the following sol–fa names:  DOH, REY, ME, FAH, SOH, LAH, TE  Sharpened FAH becomes FE, and flattened TE becomes TA  France Emile Chevé used sol-fa in France
  14. 14.  Little children always start with SOH – ME and SOH – LAH sol– fa names because of their range of voice, after come more difficult exercises  Kodály uses relative sol–fa:  DOH considered to be the keynote in all maxor keys  LAH considered to be de keynote in all minor keys  It focuses on the relationship among pithces  Children get used to the sound of DOH – SOH so later it will be easy for them to recognize a quint
  15. 15. International use of the Kodaly Method In 1958 at the ISME conference Ádám Jenő kept a presentation about Hungarian music aducation First Heino Kaljuste, than Russian Weisz, Helen Richars, Chailley Hani Kjoko adopted thet method From 1965 music teachers come to Hungary to learn the new method In some country there were difficultes with the names of the sol – fa. In Russia they use the following names: JO – LE – MI – NA – SO – RA – DI
  16. 16. Examples of Kodály - adaptation 1. Greek music lesson: – Evangelor Fangar before presenting a song, taugth the students to the rythm of 7/8, with a clapping exercise – When there was no problem with the rythm the teacher sang the melody (while childre are clapping) – Finally the teacher played the guitar while the children were dancing and singing
  17. 17. 2. Brazilian music lesson: – C. Gerson music teacher taught a folk – song – First he presented it with clapping exercises – When the students get used to it, he claped an other ostinato – Then he taught some dance steps of folk – dance – The student were saying the rythm names and dancing – After they sang it with sol–fa names, than finally with the lyrics
  18. 18. Examples from Turkey
  19. 19. Iznik Ceramics and Tiles The art of Turkish tiles and ceramics occupies a place of prominence in the history of Islamic art. The art of Turkish tile and ceramic-making developed over the centuries incorporating many different techniques and styles. Efforts are also being made in private workshops and educational institutions in Iznik, Istanbul, and Bursa to keep the art of traditional Turkish tiles and ceramics alive and develop it so that it can address the demands of modern-day life.
  20. 20. Mevlana His phylosophy reflects universal principles for humanity “Come, come whatever you are, it doesn't matter whether you are an infidel, an idolater or a fire-worshiper, Come, our convent is not a place of despair. Come, even if you violated your swear a hundred times,come again. Hz. Mevlana”
  21. 21. Examples from Barcelona
  22. 22. Society Museums Multidisciplinar and pluridisciplinar Provide social sciences knowledge Visualize practices of the every day life and the social and cultural history of events Present contemporary situations and problems “An international centre for reflecting on society, a museum in a global world that recreate virtual trips to past and future” (Catalan government)
  23. 23. EL CAMP DE LA BOTA by Francesc Abad This is a project on a public building and its social and political dimensions, which concern us all : an enormous concrete tombstone at the end of quot;Diagonalquot;, the main road in Barcelona, which has a water purification plant below it and will now be the site of an immense sixty hectare esplanade with sea views. It's been chosen to host visitors to the quot;Forum 2004quot; exhibition which include workshops, concerts, and a leisure zone as its main attractions. Beneath this enormous tombstone was, quot;El Camp de la Botaquot;, a site where more than 1,700 were killed during the franquist repression. Memory | This tragic historical site, buried in the loss of everything objective and in patriotism, is known in Catalonia's history as quot;The Parapetquot;. It was a wall, an enormous structure positioned diagonally to the seafront in a barren location. You could get there via a road that led to the beach where the firing squad undertook their job of excecution.
  24. 24. Examples from the Netherlands
  25. 25. Family history A lot of persons in the Netherlands are doing familyresearch. By creating a familytree the tangible heritage (pictures, family bible and old documents) can be linked to the intangible heritage (stories about ancestors). This way you can show our culture from a personal perspective.
  26. 26. Rembrandt One of the best know pictures in the world Linking Dutch culture in the 17th century to tangible heritage (painting) It is national heritage that became global heritage

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