Biological washing powders
- lipase: greasy stains
- protease: eggs, blood
• Advantage: they work at lower temperatures,
so less water heating is needed, and clothes
• Fruit juices: are extracted using pectinase. It breaks
down pectin and is much easier to squeeze juice
from the fruit. It also makes the juice clear rather
• Biscuits: - isomerase: converts glucose to fructose,
which is sweeter so less needs to be used in
- protease: softens glutens, making the roller
of biscuits easier
Germination of seeds
• Amylase is found in seeds.
• When the seed begins to germinate, it
catalyses the break down of insoluble starch
to soluble maltose.
• The maltose is used by the growing embryo : -
as an energy source
- to make cellulose for new cell
We obtain many enzymes from
• Microscopic fungi, such as yeast.
• They are grown inside fermenters.
• Conditions needed to grow and reproduce:?
The fungus penicillium makes penicillin
• The antibiotic penicillin is made by cultivating the
fungus in a fermenter.
• The fermenter is kept at the correct ph and
temperature for the enzymes of the fungus to work
well. What else do they need to grow?
• Its enzymes convert a substrate to a desired product.
• First 15-24 hs. The fungus just grow.
• Then, it begins to secrete penicillin, which is
collected from the liquid part of the culture.