Powerpoint making use of enzymes

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Powerpoint making use of enzymes

  1. 1. Making use of enzymes • Washing powders • Food industry • Germination of seeds • Antibiotic penicillin
  2. 2. Washing powder
  3. 3. Biological washing powders • Contain: - lipase: greasy stains - protease: eggs, blood • Advantage: they work at lower temperatures, so less water heating is needed, and clothes don´t shrink.
  4. 4. Food industry • Fruit juices: are extracted using pectinase. It breaks down pectin and is much easier to squeeze juice from the fruit. It also makes the juice clear rather than cloudy. • Biscuits: - isomerase: converts glucose to fructose, which is sweeter so less needs to be used in slimmers biscuits. - protease: softens glutens, making the roller of biscuits easier
  5. 5. Germination of seeds • Amylase is found in seeds. • When the seed begins to germinate, it catalyses the break down of insoluble starch to soluble maltose. • The maltose is used by the growing embryo : - as an energy source - to make cellulose for new cell walls.
  6. 6. We obtain many enzymes from microorganisms • Bacteria • Microscopic fungi, such as yeast. • They are grown inside fermenters. • Conditions needed to grow and reproduce:?
  7. 7. The fungus penicillium makes penicillin • The antibiotic penicillin is made by cultivating the fungus in a fermenter. • The fermenter is kept at the correct ph and temperature for the enzymes of the fungus to work well. What else do they need to grow? • Its enzymes convert a substrate to a desired product. Which one? • First 15-24 hs. The fungus just grow. • Then, it begins to secrete penicillin, which is collected from the liquid part of the culture.

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