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Powerpoint human reproduction


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Powerpoint human reproduction

  1. 1. HUMAN REPRODUCTION Sexual reproduction is the process involving the fusion of haploid nuclei to form a diploid zygote and the production of genetically dissimilar offspring
  3. 3. HORMONES: male • Testosterone (testes) • Development of male sexual secondary characteristics: - Penis and testes grow: produce sperm and testosterone - Facial hair develops - Changes to larynx: deeper voice - Hair grows on chest and in armpits - Pubic hair develops
  6. 6. HORMONES: female • Oestrogen and progesterone • Development of male sexual secondary characteristics: - Ovaries grow- eggs develop and female hormones are released - Hair grows in armpits - Breasts develop/increase in size - Hips broaden - Pubic hair grows - Vagina enlargens
  7. 7. Female hormones
  8. 8. OVARIES
  10. 10. Fertilisation: the joining of the nuclei of the male gamete (sperm) and the female gamete (egg)
  11. 11. Ovulation and implantation
  12. 12. PLACENTA
  13. 13. BIRTH • It begins when the strong muscles in the wall of the uterus start to contract. This is called labour. • The wall of the cervix, gradually becomes wide enough for the baby to be pushed through. • The wall of the vagina can stretch to allow the baby to be pushed through.
  14. 14. Birth
  15. 15. Afterbirth The placenta falls away from the wall of the uterus, and passes out through the vagina.
  16. 16. ANTE-NATAL CARE • Diet plenty of calcium: why? • Diet plenty of extra iron: why? • Diet with extra carbohydrates: why? • Diet with extra protein: why? • Continue to take exercise • No smoking: why? • Not too much alcohol or drugs. • Avoid illnesses: rubella (deaf or other disabilities) • AIDS: the virus HIV can cross the placenta
  17. 17. Breast feeding vs. Milk formula
  18. 18. Advantage of breast milk vs. Formula milk • Free! • No need to use an equipment, which, unless clean it´s easier for bacteria to get into the milk and make the baby ill. • Contains antibodies from the mother, which helps the baby ti fight off infectious diseases. • Close relationship to develop between mother and baby. The composition changes as it grows so that´s exactly right for the different stages of development.
  19. 19. BIRTH CONTROL:methods • NATURAL →abstinence • CHEMICAL →contraceptive pill →spermicide • MECHANICAL →condom →diaphragm →IUD • SURGICAL → vasectomy → female sterilisation
  20. 20. SOME METHODS OF BIRTH CONTROL METHOD HOW IT WORKS ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES ABSTINENCE (Natural) Careful record of menstrual cycle over several months, so that the woman can predict roughly when an egg is likely to be present in her oviducts. Sexual intercourse must be avoided around this time. It is never possible to be 100% certain when ovulation is going to happen. Used by many people who do not want to use another contraceptive method. CONTRACEPTIVE PILL (chemical) Contains oestrogen and progesterone, which are made when the woman is pregnant and stop egg production. One pill is taken every day Very effective method, as long as the pills are taken at the right time. However, unpleasant side-effects may be experienced. Women must have regular check-ups with the doctor. CONDOM ( mechanical) It traps semen, as it is released stopping it from entering the vagina. Safe method if used correctly. Helps to prevent the transfer of infection, such as gonorrhoea and HIV. DIAPHRAGM (mechanical) Circular sheet of rubber placed over the cervix, at the top of the vagina. Sperm deposited in the vagina cannot get past the diaphragm into the uterus. Effective method if used and fitted correctly. Fitting must be done by a doctor, but after that a woman can put her own diaphragm in and take it out as needed. STERILISATION (surgical) Man: sperm ducts are cut or tied. Woman: the oviducts are cut or tied. Extremely sure with no side- effects. However, the tubes cannot be re-opened It is not a method for young people.
  21. 21. Pills
  22. 22. Condom
  23. 23. Diaphragm
  24. 24. IUD: intra uterine device
  25. 25. Sterilisation
  27. 27. GONORRHOEA Microorganism Symptoms/signs How to prenvent infection treatment Bacteria (Neisseria) - Only survives in moist places, such as the tissues lining the tubes in the reproductive systems. -MAN: It reproduces inside the urethra. Unpleasant discharge and pain when urinating. - WOMEN: it reproduces mostly in the cervix. Discharge and no pain. They are anaware that they have the infection -Having only one sexual partner. -- Condom -- tracing, warning and treating all possible sexual contacts of a person who is diagnosed with gonorrhoea to make sure that it does not spread any furthur. Antibiotics (penicillin) Always succesful.
  28. 28. AIDS: acquired immune deficiency syndrome Microorganism Methods of transmission How it affects the immune system Ways in which can be prevented HIV: human immunodeficiency virus -Direct contact of your body fluids with those of someone with the viru:. -Through sexual intercourse: can live in the fluid inside the vagina, rectum and urethra. -- Through blood contact: a) blood transfusions b) Sharing hypodermic needles c) People who have to deal with accidents: paramedics, police -HIV infects lymphocytes, in particular T cells. They are unable to fight against other pathogens effectively. -They become vulnerable to other infections such as pneumonia, they may develop cancer and brain cells are also damaged. - They die of a collection of several illnesses. -Having one sexual partner. - Using condoms lowers the chances of the virus passing from one person to another. - Blood used in transfusions must be screened for HIV before it is used. - Use of sterile needles. - Paramedics and policemen: use of protective clothes.