HORMONES: male• Testosterone (testes)• Development of male sexual secondarycharacteristics:- Penis and testes grow: produce sperm andtestosterone- Facial hair develops- Changes to larynx: deeper voice- Hair grows on chest and in armpits- Pubic hair develops
HORMONES: female• Oestrogen and progesterone• Development of male sexual secondarycharacteristics:- Ovaries grow- eggs develop and femalehormones are released- Hair grows in armpits- Brests develop/increase in size- Hips broaden- Pubic hair grows- Vagina enlargens
BIRTH• It begins when the strong muscles in the wallof the uterus start to contract. This is calledlabour.• The wall of the cervix, gradually becomes wideenough for the baby to be pushed through.• The wall of the vagina can stretch to allow thebaby to be pushed through.
Afterbirth The placenta falls away from the wallof the uterus, and passes out through the vagina.
ANTE-NATAL CARE• Diet plenty of calcium: why?• Diet plenty of extra iron: why?• Diet with extra carbohydrates: why?• Diet with extra protein: why?• Continue to take exercise• No smoking: why?• Not too much alcohol or drugs.• Avoid illnesses: rubella (deaf or other disabilities)• AIDS: the virus HIV can cross the placenta
Advantage of breast milk vs. Formulamilk• Free!• No need to use an equipment, which, unlessclean it´s easier for bacteria to get into the milkand make the baby ill.• Contains antibodies from the mother, whichhelps the baby ti fight off infectious diseases.• Close relationship to develop between motherand baby.The composition changes as it grows so that´sexactly right for the different stages ofdevelopment.
SOME METHODS OF BIRTH CONTROLMETHOD HOW IT WORKS ADVANTAGES ANDDISADVANTAGESABSTINENCE(Natural)Careful record of menstrual cycle overseveral months, so that the woman canpredict roughly when an egg is likely tobe present in her oviducts. Sexualintercourse must be avoided around thistime.It is never possible to be 100% certainwhen ovulation is going to happen.Used by many people who do not wantto use another contraceptive method.CONTRACEPTIVE PILL(chemical)Contains oestrogen and progesterone,which are made when the woman ispregnant and stop egg production. Onepill is taken every dayVery effective method, as long as thepills are taken at the right time. However,unpleasant side-effects may beexperienced. Women must have regularcheck-ups with the doctor.CONDOM( mechanical)It traps semen, as it is released stoppingit from entering the vagina.Safe method if used correctly.Helps to prevent the transfer of infection,such as gonorrhoea and HIV.DIAPHRAGM(mechanical)Circular sheet of rubber placed over thecervix, at the top of the vagina. Spermdeposited in the vagina cannot get pastthe diaphragm into the uterus.Effective method if used and fittedcorrectly. Fitting must be done by adoctor, but after that a woman can puther own diaphragm in and take it out asneeded.STERILISATION(surgical)Man: sperm ducts are cut or tied.Woman: the oviducts are cut or tied.Extremely sure with no side- effects.However, the tubes cannot be re-openedIt is not a method for young people.
SEXUAL TRANSMISSABLE DISEASES• GONORRHOEA• AIDS
GONORRHOEAMicroorganism Symptoms/signs How to prenventinfectiontreatmentBacteria(Neisseria)- Only survives in moistplaces, such as thetissues lining the tubes inthe reproductive systems.-MAN: It reproducesinside the urethra.Unpleasant discharge andpain when urinating.- WOMEN: it reproducesmostly in the cervix.Discharge and no pain.They are anaware thatthey have the infection-Having only one sexualpartner.-- Condom-- tracing, warning andtreating all possiblesexual contacts of aperson who is diagnosedwith gonorrhoea to makesure that it does notspread any furthur.Antibiotics(penicillin)Always succesful.
AIDS: acquired immune deficiency syndromeMicroorganism Methods oftransmissionHow it affects theimmune systemWays in which canbe preventedHIV: humanimmunodeficiencyvirus-Direct contact ofyour body fluids withthose of someonewith the viru:.-Through sexualintercourse: can livein the fluid inside thevagina, rectum andurethra.-- Through bloodcontact:a) blood transfusionsb) Sharinghypodermic needlesc) People who haveto deal withaccidents:paramedics, police-HIV infectslymphocytes, inparticular T cells.They are unable tofight against otherpathogenseffectively.-They becomevulnerable to otherinfections such aspneumonia, theymay develop cancerand brain cells arealso damaged.- They die of acollection of severalillnesses.-Having one sexualpartner.- Using condomslowers the chancesof the virus passingfrom one person toanother.- Blood used intransfusions mustbe screened for HIVbefore it is used.- Use of sterileneedles.- Paramedics andpolicemen: use ofprotective clothes.