Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
HUMAN NUTRITION<br />DIGESTIVE SYSTEM<br />
THE ALIMENTARY CANAL<br />INGESTION: takingsubstances (e.g.food, drink) intothebodythroughthemouth.<br />DIGESTION: the br...
Namethelayers of tissuethatmake up thealimentary canal, startingfromtheinside<br />
PERISTALSISA contraction in oneregion of thealimentary canal isfollowedbyanothercontractionjustbelowit so that a wave of c...
DIGESTION:Physical:teethChemical: enzymes<br />
Chemicaldigestion<br />
MOUTH   -Ingestion    -DigestionFoodischewed and mixedwithsaliva.<br />
Howto reduce therisk of toothdecay<br />-Eatingfoodwith a lowsugarcontent.<br /><ul><li> Regular and effectivebrushing of ...
Chemicaldigestion(mouth)<br />Saliva: containssalivaryamylase<br />starch   ->   maltose<br />
SWALLOWING<br />Ensuresthatfooddoesnotenterthewindpipe (trachea) and cause choking.<br />Beginning: voluntary<br />Then: i...
STOMACH<br />
STOMACH<br />Functions:<br />  - storesfoodfrom a meal.<br />  - turnsfoodinto a liquid (peristalticmovements)<br />  - re...
Chemicaldigestion:<br />Production of gastricjuice(glands in thelining) <br />            - Enzyme: pepsin (protease)<br /...
THE SMALL INTESTINEDuodenumIleum<br />Chemicaldigestion<br />Enzymesfrom:<br />Pancreaticjuices<br />Bile<br />Intestinal ...
Liver, gallbladder, duodenum and pancreas<br />
PANCREAS<br />Secretion of pancreaticjuice:deliveredtotheduodenumbythepancreaticduct.<br />          i) Enzymes:<br />-Pro...
BILE<br />Producedbytheliver.<br />Stored in thegallbladder.<br />Deliveredtotheduodenumbythebileduct.<br />No enzymes<br ...
INTESTINAL JUICES<br />Theepithelialcells of thevilli produce enzymeswhichcompletethebreakdown of:<br />       - Maltose<b...
FINAL PRODUCTS OF DIGESTION<br />
ABSORPTION: ILEUM<br />
VILLI: Hystology<br />
Structure of a villus<br />
MoleculesEpithelialcells -> a largeproportion of                                              ↓             fattyacid + gl...
LARGE INTESTINEColon and rectum<br />Material thatreachesitcontains:<br />i) waterwithundigestedmatter<br />ii) cellulose<...
ASSIMILATION<br />Glucose<br />Respirationenergy<br />Fats<br />          -Are builtintocellmembranes and othercellstructu...
STORAGE OF DIGESTED FOOD<br />Glucose<br />     - Changed in thelivertoglycogen<br />     - Some of theglycogenisstored in...
STORAGE OF DIGESTED FOOD<br />Fats<br />    - Thereis no limittostorage of fats<br />    - Long- termstore as fatdepots in...
STORAGE OF DIGESTED FOOD<br />Amino acids<br />    - They are notstored in thebody<br />    - Thosenotused in proteinforma...
LIVERFunctions<br />Regulation of bloodsugars.<br />Production of bile.<br />Deamination<br />Storage of iron.<br />Manufa...
Powerpint digestive system
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Powerpint digestive system

1,338 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

Powerpint digestive system

  1. 1. HUMAN NUTRITION<br />DIGESTIVE SYSTEM<br />
  2. 2. THE ALIMENTARY CANAL<br />INGESTION: takingsubstances (e.g.food, drink) intothebodythroughthemouth.<br />DIGESTION: the break-down of large, insoluble foodmoleculesintosmall, water-soluble moleculesusingmechanical and chemicalprocesses.<br />ABSORPTION:themovement of digestivefoodmoleculesthroughthewall of theintestineintothebloodorlymph.<br />ASSIMILATION: themovement of digestivefoodmoleculesintothecells of thebodywherethey are used, becomingpart of thecells.<br />EGESTION: the ´passingout of foodthat has notbeendigeste, as faeces, throughtheanus.<br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4. Namethelayers of tissuethatmake up thealimentary canal, startingfromtheinside<br />
  5. 5. PERISTALSISA contraction in oneregion of thealimentary canal isfollowedbyanothercontractionjustbelowit so that a wave of contractionpassesalongthe canal pushingfood in front of it.<br />
  6. 6. DIGESTION:Physical:teethChemical: enzymes<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8. Chemicaldigestion<br />
  9. 9. MOUTH -Ingestion -DigestionFoodischewed and mixedwithsaliva.<br />
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
  13. 13. Howto reduce therisk of toothdecay<br />-Eatingfoodwith a lowsugarcontent.<br /><ul><li> Regular and effectivebrushing of teeth at leasttwice a daytopreventthebuild up of plaque.</li></ul>- Use a fluoridetoothpasteregularly. Itmakesyourteeth more resistanttodecay<br />
  14. 14. Chemicaldigestion(mouth)<br />Saliva: containssalivaryamylase<br />starch -> maltose<br />
  15. 15. SWALLOWING<br />Ensuresthatfooddoesnotenterthewindpipe (trachea) and cause choking.<br />Beginning: voluntary<br />Then: involuntary<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17. STOMACH<br />
  18. 18. STOMACH<br />Functions:<br /> - storesfoodfrom a meal.<br /> - turnsfoodinto a liquid (peristalticmovements)<br /> - releasesfood in smallquantities at a time totherest of thealimentary canal (pyloricsphincter) <br />
  19. 19. Chemicaldigestion:<br />Production of gastricjuice(glands in thelining) <br /> - Enzyme: pepsin (protease)<br />Proteins -> peptides<br />- Hydrochloricacid: providesthebestdegree of <br />acidityforpepsintowork in and killsmany bacteria <br /> of food.<br />
  20. 20. THE SMALL INTESTINEDuodenumIleum<br />Chemicaldigestion<br />Enzymesfrom:<br />Pancreaticjuices<br />Bile<br />Intestinal juices<br />
  21. 21. Liver, gallbladder, duodenum and pancreas<br />
  22. 22. PANCREAS<br />Secretion of pancreaticjuice:deliveredtotheduodenumbythepancreaticduct.<br /> i) Enzymes:<br />-Proteases:<br />Proteins -> peptides -> aa<br />- Pancreaticamylase:<br />Starch -> maltose<br />- Lipase:<br />Fats -> fattyacids + glycerol<br />ii) Sodiumhydrogencarbonate: neutralizestheacidliquidfrom<br />thestomach so thatpancreaticenzymesworkcorrectly. (alkalineconditions)<br />
  23. 23. BILE<br />Producedbytheliver.<br />Stored in thegallbladder.<br />Deliveredtotheduodenumbythebileduct.<br />No enzymes<br />Bilepigment:fromthe break down of haemoglobin in theliver.<br />Bilesalts: Emulsifythefats: they break them up intosmalldropswhich are more easilydigestedbylipase.<br />
  24. 24. INTESTINAL JUICES<br />Theepithelialcells of thevilli produce enzymeswhichcompletethebreakdown of:<br /> - Maltose<br /> - Peptides<br />beforethey are absorbed.<br />Maltose -> glucose<br />Peptides -> aa<br />
  25. 25. FINAL PRODUCTS OF DIGESTION<br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27. ABSORPTION: ILEUM<br />
  28. 28. VILLI: Hystology<br />
  29. 29. Structure of a villus<br />
  30. 30. MoleculesEpithelialcells -> a largeproportion of ↓ fattyacid + glycerolcapillaries (bloodstream ) ↓ ↓ formfatsagainveinsveins ↓ ↓ passtolactealsHepatic Portal Vein↓ ↓ lymphaticsystemLIVER↓General circulation (vena cava)<br />
  31. 31. LARGE INTESTINEColon and rectum<br />Material thatreachesitcontains:<br />i) waterwithundigestedmatter<br />ii) cellulose<br />iii) fibre: digestedpartlyby bacteria<br />iv) mucus<br /> v) deadcellsfromthelining of thealimentary canal<br />Function: absorption of water.<br />semisolidwaste -> faeces -> rectum -> anus (EGESTION)<br />
  32. 32. ASSIMILATION<br />Glucose<br />Respirationenergy<br />Fats<br /> -Are builtintocellmembranes and othercellstructures<br /> - Source of energy<br />Amino acids<br /> - Built up intoproteins. Functions??<br />
  33. 33. STORAGE OF DIGESTED FOOD<br />Glucose<br /> - Changed in thelivertoglycogen<br /> - Some of theglycogenisstored in liver (short- termstore) and muscles.<br />- LIVER: If ↓ bloodsugarsGlycogen -> glucose -> circulation<br /> - MUSCLES: glucose: for muscular activity<br /> - Excess of glucose: convertedtofat and stored in fatsdepots<br />
  34. 34. STORAGE OF DIGESTED FOOD<br />Fats<br /> - Thereis no limittostorage of fats<br /> - Long- termstore as fatdepots in:<br />-abdomen<br /> - round thekidneys (adiposetissue)<br /> - undertheskin<br />
  35. 35. STORAGE OF DIGESTED FOOD<br />Amino acids<br /> - They are notstored in thebody<br /> - Thosenotused in proteinformation are deaminated(in theliver)<br />
  36. 36. LIVERFunctions<br />Regulation of bloodsugars.<br />Production of bile.<br />Deamination<br />Storage of iron.<br />Manufacture of plasma proteins.<br />Detoxication.<br />Storage of vitamins<br />

×