Power of wind


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Wind turbine design is the process to extract energy from the wind.m.m.palitha mahinda munasinghe,Sri Lanka

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Power of wind

  1. 1. WIND POWER ENERGY M.M.Palitha Mahinda Munasinghe Farm Mechanical Instructor palithamahinda@yahoo.com
  2. 2. The Benefits Of Wind Power Energy • Harness and plentiful energy source • It is green, renewable energy and doesn't release any harmful pollutants • It is free, wind farms need no fuel • The land beneath can usually still be used for farming • A good method of supplying energy to remote areas 4/06/2011 mmpmm 2
  3. 3. Difficulties' of Generate Wind Power Energy • The wind is not always some days have no wind • Suitable areas for wind farms are near the cost, where land is expensive • Can kill migrating birds flocks tend to like strong winds • Can affect television & Radio transmission signals • Can be noisy day and night 4/06/2011 mmpmm 3
  4. 4. Wind Tower Components 4/06/2011 mmpmm 4
  5. 5. Energy Transfers  Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy from the wind into mechanical energy  which is then used to drive a generator that converts this energy in to electricity 4/06/2011 mmpmm 5
  6. 6.  Generated power is transferred through conductive wires directly to a home, grid connection system for wider spread use or a battery storage system  Battery banks store the power for later usage and employ a regulator to avoid overcharging incidents 4/06/2011 mmpmm 6
  7. 7. Type of wind Turbines Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) • The main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a tower • Must be pointed into the wind • Small turbines are pointed by a simple wind vane • Large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a servo motor • Most have a gearbox( which turns the slow rotation of the blades into a quicker rotation that is more suitable to drive an electrical generator) Vertical-axis wind turbines (or VAWTs) • The main rotor shaft arranged vertically • Turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind • On sites where the wind direction is highly variable is most suitable • The generator and gearbox can be placed near the ground • It could direct drive from the rotor assembly to the ground-based gearbox (hence improving accessibility for maintenance) 4/06/2011 mmpmm 7
  8. 8. Turbine Design The rotor component Includes the blades for converting wind energy to low speed rotational energy. Which is approximately 20% of the wind turbine cost The generator component Includes the electrical generator, the control electronics, and most likely a gearbox (e.g. planetary gearbox, adjustable-speed drive or continuously variable transmission) component for converting the low speed incoming rotation to high speed rotation suitable for generating electricity. Which is approximately 34% of the wind turbine cost The structural support component Includes the tower and rotor yaw mechanism. Which is approximately 15% of the wind turbine cost 4/06/2011 mmpmm 8
  9. 9. Horizontal-axis wind turbines VS Vertical-axis wind turbines  Vertical axis wind turbine designs could immediately convert wind into a rotation This means that they are actually turning more consistently than most of the horizontal axis designs and provide a more consistent output of power 4/06/2011 mmpmm 9
  10. 10. Turbine Design Horizontal axis wind turbines Designed and validated should be according to IEC 61400 standards  Typical operating temperature range is -20 to 40 °C  Designed for a maximum wind speed  The survival speed of wind turbines is in the range of 40 m/s to 72 m/s  4/06/2011 mmpmm 10
  11. 11. Blades Designs • The ratio between the speed of the blade tips and the speed of the wind is called tip speed ratio • High efficiency 3-blade-turbines have tip speed/wind speed ratios of 6 to 7. • Modern wind turbines are designed to spin at varying speeds • Use of aluminum and composite materials in their blades has contributed to low rotational inertia • Newer wind turbines can accelerate quickly if the winds pick up • It keeping the tip speed ratio more nearly constant 4/06/2011 mmpmm 11
  12. 12. Blades Designs  Aluminum and composite materials to build blades has contributed to low rotational inertia  Fiberglass-reinforced epoxy material  Most horizontal wind turbines settled on a 3-blade design, which gives the best balance of stability and rotor speed 4/06/2011 mmpmm 12
  13. 13. Blades Designs 4/06/2011 mmpmm 13
  14. 14. The hub Pitch mechanism drive turbine • In simple designs the blades are directly bolted to the hub • More sophisticated designs, they are bolted to the pitch mechanism • Which adjusts their angle of attack according to the wind speed to control their rotational speed • The pitch mechanism is itself bolted to the hub • The hub is fixed to the rotor shaft which drives the generator through a gearbox 4/06/2011 mmpmm 14
  15. 15. The hub Direct drive turbine 1. Control panel 2. Nacelle 3. Generator stator 4. Generator rotor 5. Blade root 6. Pitch drive 7. Nose cone 8. Main hub 9. Tower 10. Yaw drive • Direct drive wind turbines are constructed without a gearbox • Its’ rotor shaft is attached directly to the generator (which spins at the same speed as the blades) 4/06/2011 mmpmm 15
  16. 16. Tower Design Lattice Tower It is often called a self-supporting tower. Lattice towers are generally made out of steel and offer the most stability of the tower types. A lattice tower can be found in either a square or a triangular shape. The lattice towers offer the most flexibility of all of the tower types. Monopole Tower A monopole tower features a single tubular mast. Because of their instability, a monopole typically does not exceed 200 feet high. However, these towers require the least amount of space on the ground. Guyed Tower Guyed towers are similar to a monopole tower in that they consist of a single tubular mast. However, a guyed tower utilizes guy wires to help with stability. These guy wires require a larger piece of land for the tower to rest on. This type of tower is often the cheapest to build, especially at heights over 300 feet. 4/06/2011 mmpmm 16
  17. 17. Inside assemble 4/06/2011 mmpmm 17
  18. 18. Inside assemble 4/06/2011 mmpmm 18
  19. 19. When It Produce Electricity  The speed of wind blowing in your locality should be at least 3-5m/s  Wind turbine should be installed in such a place which is away from obstacles  The survival speed of commercial wind turbines is in the range of 40 m/s (144 km/h) to 72 m/s (259 km/h)  The most common survival speed is 60 m/s (216 km/h) 4/06/2011 mmpmm 19
  20. 20. Motor Design Permanent magnet DC motor 4/06/2011 mmpmm 20
  21. 21. 4/06/2011 mmpmm 21
  22. 22. Modes of Operation   Around rated wind speed operation  4/06/2011 Below rated wind speed operation Above rated wind speed operation mmpmm 22