Assume a world where teachers and learners have free access to high-quality educational resources, independent of their location. Assume further that many of these resources are collaborative produced, and localized and adjusted for the learner’s specific needs and context. Assume that the cost of producing and maintaining these resources would be distributed across a large number of actors and countries. Assume further that the costs were declining rapidly and, for practical purposes, could be considered to be negligible.
It will become possible in a scale that willradically change the ways in which we learn and create knowledge.
“My view is that in the open-accessmovement, we are seeing the early emergenceof a meta-university — atranscendent, accessible, empowering, dynamic, communally constructed framework of openmaterials and platforms on which much ofhigher education worldwide can be constructedor enhanced. The Internet and the Web willprovide the communication infrastructure, andthe open-access movement and its derivativeswill provide much of the knowledge andinformation infrastructure.”
“Learning resources - courseware, content modules, learning objects, learner-support and assessment tools, online learning communities Resources to support teachers - tools for teachers and support materials to enable them to create, adapt, and use OER, as well as training materials for teachers and other teaching tools Resources to assure the quality of education and educational practices.”
New technologies, such as computer- based simulations and games, networked collaboration platforms, portable audio and video devices, and massively distributed content creation and learning management systems will enable new learning practices. Cognitive technologies will be used to repair defects in learning styles and to compensate the effects of aging.
Skype, the free internet voice telephony service has now over 100 million users. The peer-produced encyclopedia Wikipedia has now over 5 million articles in over 100 languages. The free YouTube video sharing system has in one year grown its user base to about 60 million daily users, and it serves now over 100 million video-clips every day.
The open source model requires that open source systems are freely available, without separate license contracts or fees. Open source development can produce high-quality systems that rapidly incorporate innovative ideas and useful functionality. Open source licenses and the availability of source code make it possible for users to modify the system to the specific needs of the user. The open source development model seems to be a very effective learning model.
Free software is a matter of the users’ freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve the software. Freedom to: Use Contribute Share
ELF is an international effort to develop a service- oriented approach to the development and integration of computer systems in the sphere of learning, research and education administration. It tries to provide a technical framework where different elements of a learning system can be described and developed. ELF uses a service-oriented approach in describing system elements and their interactions. The service-oriented approach is now widely used to create web-based applications and Service Oriented Architectures (SOA’s), and it underlies also the O.K.I. architecture.
Reusable competency and educational objective definitions Other IMS content packages Learning designs that define specific pedagogical models and the ways in which resources are used in them Information packages about specific learners Meta-data Interoperable question and test packages Vocabulary definitions Resource lists
Economic and policy view “anything that requires investment and produces services over time”Structuration theory “transformative capacity through which power over material and social world is exercised”W3C and IETF “anything that can be pointed with a Universal Resource Identifier (URI)”IMS IAF “any digital entity that can be accessed via URI, including competency and education objective definitions; content packages; learning designs; learner information packages; meta-data; question and test packages; vocabularies; resource lists.”SIF “instructional services; student information services; library systems; grade book; food services; transportation & geographic information services; data analysis and reporting; network account management; human resources & financial management; voice telephony”Teacher view “anything that can be used to organize and support learning experiences”Learner view “anything that can be mobilized or drawn on to support learning, including prepared course material, notes, information sources, peers, experts, and unintended resources.”
Enable development of individual or social capabilities for understanding and acting Can be enjoyed without restricting the possibilities of others to enjoy them Provide non-discriminatory access to information and knowledge about the resource Generate services that can be enjoyed by anyone with sufficient non-discriminatory capabilities Can be contributed to by anyone, without restrictions that exceed the norms of open science
The World OER Congress held at UNESCO, Paris on 20-22 June 2012. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 26.1), which states that: “Everyone has the right to education”. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Article 13.1), which recognizes “the right of everyone to education”. The 1971 Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works and the 1996 WIPO Copyright Treaty. The Millennium Declaration and the 2000 Dakar Framework for Action, which made global commitments to provide quality basic education for all children, youth and adults.
The 2003 World Summit on the Information Society, Declaration of Principles, committing “to build a people centred, inclusive and development-oriented Information Society where everyone can create, access, utilize and share information and knowledge”. The 2003 UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Promotion and Use of Multilingualism and Universal Access to Cyberspace;
The 2005 UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expression, which states that: “Equitable access to a rich and diversified range of cultural expressions from all over the world and access of cultures to the means of expressions and dissemination constitute important elements for enhancing cultural diversity and encouraging mutual understanding”; The 2006 Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (Article 24), which recognises the rights of persons with disabilities to education; The declarations of the six International Conference on Adult Education (CONFINTEA) Conferences emphasising the fundamental role of Adult Learning and Education.
Coined at UNESCO’s 2002 Forum on Open Courseware and designates teaching, learning and research materials in any medium, digital or otherwise, that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits no- cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions. Open licensing is built within the existing framework of intellectual property rights as defined by relevant international conventions and respects the authorship of the work.
2007 Cape Town Open Education Declaration. the 2009 Dakar Declaration on Open Educational Resources. the 2011 Commonwealth of Learning and UNESCO Guidelines on Open Educational Resources in Higher Education. Noting that Open Educational Resources (OER) promote the aims of the international statements quoted above.
Foster awareness and use of OER. Facilitate enabling environments for use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT). Reinforce the development of strategies and policies on OER. Promote the understanding and use of open licensing frameworks. Support capacity building for the sustainable development of quality learning materials.
Foster strategic alliances for OER. Encourage the development and adaptation of OER in a variety of languages and cultural contexts. Encourage research on OER. Facilitate finding, retrieving and sharing of OER. Encourage the open licensing of educational materials produced with public funds.
The Open Educational Resource (OER) university is a virtual collaboration of like-minded institutions committed to creating flexible pathways for OER learners to gain formal academic credit. The OER university aims to provide free learning to all students worldwide using OER learning materials with pathways to gain credible qualifications from recognised education institutions. It is rooted in the community service and outreach mission to develop a parallel learning universe to augment and add value to traditional delivery systems in post-secondary education. Through the community service mission of participating institutions we will open pathways for OER learners to earn formal academic credit and pay reduced fees for assessment and credit.
Directed by the core principles of engagement the OERuniversity collaboration: Will design and implement a parallel learning universe to provide free learning opportunities for all students worldwide with pathways to earn credible post-secondary credentials. Offer courses and programs based solely on OER and open textbooks. Design and implement scalable pedagogies appropriate for the OER university concept. Will implement scalable systems of volunteer student support through community service learning approaches. Coordinate assessment and credentialising services on a cost recovery basis for participating education institutions to ensure credible qualifications and corresponding course articulation among anchor partners.
In 2002 the Education Program of the Hewlett Foundation introduced a major component into its strategic plan Using Information Technology to Increase Access to High- Quality Educational Content. Hewlett program officers were motivated to initiate the component after thoroughly examining content for K through 12 and post-secondary levels and finding it “alarmingly disappointing.” In 1992, when the World Wide Web was launched, open information resources rapidly became freely available, although they were of widely varying quality.
Educational institutions and publishers, lack of quality assurance for the content, and information overload also impeded the educational impact. During the 1990s, the funding for information technology in education primarily emphasized access to computers and Internet connection and the basic literacy for their use. The intent of this new Hewlett Foundation program component was to catalyze universal access to and use of high-quality academic content on a global scale.
In February 2005, the first meeting of the OpenCourseWare Consortium was held at MIT. Extend the reach and impact of open courseware by encouraging the adoption and adaptation of open educational materials around the world. Foster the development of additional open courseware projects. Ensure the long-term sustainability of open courseware projects by identifying ways to improve effectiveness and reduce costs.
Perhaps without thinking about it in these terms, Hewlett has in fact been nurturing the creation of infrastructure in the OER initiative. There is a substantial body of literature, experience, and academic expertise that could assist is creating a principled approach to the OPLI initiative.
Infrastructure for Knowledge and Innovation Designing the Virtual Organization Technology-Enabled Knowledge The Ecology and Design of “Open” Between Public and Private: Bridges, Fences, and New Terrain Pooling and Integration Architecting the Knowledge Commons Standards Development under Pressure Aligning Patents and Knowledge
Extensible Remixable Repurposable Service-oriented Multi-lingual Incremental and architecturally light at its roots Interchange on demand Human-centered and socio-technical in nature Support a spectrum of openness Support for collaborative learning in multi-role, hybrid groups Highly and smartly instrumented
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