A&p 18 ans integration

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A&p 18 ans integration

  1. 1. Integration of the Autonomic Nervous System Anatomy and Physiology L | E | C | O | M Mathew J. Bateman, Ph.D.
  2. 2. Somatic vs. Autonomic
  3. 3. Dual Innervation
  4. 4. Innervation of the Heart Decreased Increase ( β 1 , β 2 ) Heat rate and force Parasympathetic Effect Sympathetic Effect and Receptor Type
  5. 5. Autonomic Vascular Control Vasoconstriction ( α 1 , α 2 ) – contraction Slight vasodilation Vasodilation ( β 2 ) – relaxation Blood vessels (Vascular smooth muscle) Parasympathetic Effect Sympathetic Effect and Receptor Type
  6. 6. Autonomic Vascular Control Blood Endothelial Cells Vascular Smooth Muscle Acetylcholine Blood Vessel Wall M Nitric Oxide - cGMP  2 Epinephrine cAMP -  1 Norepinephrine + High doses - + Relax (vasodilation) Contract (vasoconstriction)
  7. 7. Blood Vessels without Dual Innervation
  8. 8. Baroreceptor Reflexes
  9. 9. Movie
  10. 10. Innervation of the Respiratory System Increase ( β 2 ) No effect Decrease secretion ( α 1 ) Muscus glands Bronchoconstriction Contraction Bronchodilation Relaxation ( β 2 ) Bronchial Muscle Parasympathetic Effect Sympathetic Effect and Receptor Type
  11. 11. Innervation of the Digestive System No effect Decreased ( α 2 ) Increased ( β 2 ) Pancreatic insulin secretion Increased Decreased ( α 1 ) Pancreatic enzymes secretion Glycogen synthesis Glycogen breakdown ( α 1 , β 2 ) Liver Increased Decreased ( α 2 ) Gastrointestinal secretion Increased Decreased ( α 1 , α 2 , β 1 , β 2 ) Gastrointestinal motility Thin serous secretion Thick mucus secretion ( α 1 ) Salivary Glands Parasympathetic Effect Sympathetic Effect and Receptor Type
  12. 12. Autonomics of Defecation
  13. 13. Innervation of the Urinary System Contraction No effect Bladder wall Relaxation, urine release Contraction, urine retention ( α 1 ) Internal urethral sphincter No effect Reduce urine output ( α 1 , α 2 ) Renin secretion ( β 1 ) Kidneys Parasympathetic Effect Sympathetic Effect and Receptor Type
  14. 14. Autonomic Control of Urination
  15. 15. Autonomics and Reproduction Parasympathetic Effect Sympathetic Effect and Receptor Type Relaxation ( β 2 ) Labor Contraction ( α 1 ) Uterus No effect Stimulation ( α 1 ) Orgasm, smooth muscle roles Stimulation No effect Glandular secretion Stimulation No effect Penile or clitoral erection
  16. 16. Innervation of the Integumentary System No effect Hair erection ( α 1 ) Piloerector muscles No effect Secretion ( α 1 ) Apocrine sweat glands (scent) No effect Secretion (muscarinic) Merocrine sweat glands (cooling) Parasympathetic Effect Sympathetic Effect and Receptor Type
  17. 17. Innervation of the Eye Secretion None Lacrimal (tear) gland Contraction for near vision Relaxation for far vision( β 2 ) Ciliary muscles and lens Pupillary constriction Pupillary dilation ( α 1 ) Iris Parasympathetic Effect Sympathetic Effect and Receptor Type
  18. 18. Autonomic Control of the Iris

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