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Maarja Kristian, Veterinary and Food Board, Estonia, African swine fever in Estonia

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MMM:n seminaari afrikkalaisesta sikarutosta 16.11.2015, Helsinki
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Maarja Kristian, Veterinary and Food Board, Estonia, African swine fever in Estonia

  1. 1. MAARJA KRISTIAN HELEN PROMMIK 1 African swine fever in Estonia
  2. 2. Veterinary and Food Board 2 Director General VETERINARY AND FOOD BOARD Deputy Director General Lawyer Animal Health, Welfare and Feedingstuffs Dept. Animal Health Office Animal Welfare Office Feedingstuffs Office Food Dept. Office for Food of Animal Origin Office for Retail, Organic Farming and Food of Non- animal Origin Trade, Import and Export Dept. Surveillance and Control Office Luhamaa BIP Muuga and Baldiski BIP Narva BIP Animal Breeding and Market Regulation Dept. Office of Animal Breeding Office of Genetic Resources Market Regulation Office Alcohol Regulation Office General Dept. Accounting Office Budgeting Office Personnel Office Administrative Office IT Office County Veterinary Centres (15) Authorised Veterinarians Deputy Director General
  3. 3. African swine fever (ASF) 3  African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious hemorrhagic viral disease of pigs, warthogs, European wild boar and American wild pigs  All age groups are equally susceptible  ASF is characterized by high fever, loss of appetite, haemorrhages in the skin and internal organs  Death in 2-10 days on average  Mortality can be up to 100%
  4. 4. Why has ASF spread so widely? 4  Farms not following biosecurity rules  Violation of veterinary rules  Human error  Spreading with wild boars –hard to control  Virus is very resistant in the environment and hence fast and total elimination is hard to achieve:  In frozen meat – for many years  In salted meat for 310 days  In smoked meat for 6 months  In soil more than 6 months  In carcasses for 2-3months
  5. 5. ASF in wild boars 5 Population dynamics for the years 2009-2013 Wild boar density Hunters estimation for the number of wild boar (2014): 19 710 *Source of information: Estonian Environment Agency Wild boar population
  6. 6. Chronology (1)6  First case of wild boar:  On 2nd September 2014 one wild boar piglet was found dead in Valga distric, Hummuli parish, 6 km from the Latvian border  Samples taken: spleen, tonsils, kidneys  Preliminary results from National Reference Laboratory (RT-PCR, ELISA)  On 5th September confirmation from EU reference laboratory for African swine fever:  RT-PCR positive, IPT positive  ASFV belongs to genotype II  Possible source of infection: movement of infected wild board from infected area (Latvia)
  7. 7. Chronology (2) 7 Location of the first case
  8. 8. Chronology (3) 8  Second case:  On 7th of September 2014 one dead wild boar was found in Viljandi district, Tarvastu parish, 25 km from the first wild boar location  Confirmation from NRL on 9th of September
  9. 9. Chronology (4) 9  3rd case:  Strangely behaved wild boar was shot in Ida-Viru county on 14th of September 2014, Lüganuse parish, 220 km from the second wild boar case location  Source of infection: unknown, possible human interaction
  10. 10. Map with the locations of 3 cases/outbreaks 10
  11. 11. Following actions 11  Measures according to Council Directive 2002/60/EC have been applied:  Establishing infected area – 200 km2  Testing of wild boars  Restrictions to pig farms in infected area
  12. 12. By the end of 2014 (1) 12  Positive cases and infected areas Location Number of positive wild boars Case no 1/Infected area 1 15 Case no 2/Infected area 2 47 Case no 3/Infected area 3 3 Case no 4/Infected area 4 1 Case no 5/Infected area 5 5 Case no 6/Infected area 6 1 Case no 7/Infected area 7 1 TOTAL 73
  13. 13. By the end of 2014 (2) 13 7 infected areas had been established
  14. 14. ASF in wild boars – 2015 Infected areas 14
  15. 15. 08.11.2015) (1) 15  In total 6683 tested wild boars  682 found dead  5995 hunted  6 culled  2014-2015 736 positive wild boars No of infected area No positive wild boars in 2014 No of positive wild boars in 2015 Total number of positive wild boars 2014-2015 1 12 30 42 2 47 130 177 3 3 20 23 4 1 39 40 5 8 58 66 6 1 46 47 7 1 5 6 8 40 40 9 12 12 10 12 12 11 64 64 12 20 20 13 2 2 14 12 12 15 36 36 16 117 117 17 13 13 18 3 3 19 2 2 20 9 9 21 1 1 22 4 4 Total 73 663 736
  16. 16. ASF in domestic pigs 1st case (1) 16  In the middle of July the owner (Valga county) noticed the continuous loss of appetite  The owner notified authorized veterinarian that her pig has no appetite, is depressed and skin has turned red  By the morning of 18th of July the pig had died  Authorized veterinarian informed animal health inspector in county veterinary centre who isnpected the farm:  Autopsy: abnormal enlargement of spleen  Samples: blood, kidneys, spleen
  17. 17. ASF in domestic pigs 1st case (2) 17  On 20.07 Veterinary and Food Laboratory confirmed ASF diagnose  Measures taken by VFB:  Restrictions on the farm, epidemiological investigation, notification  Zoning and restrictions on the farms in the zones  Destruction of the carcass in the rendering plant  Cleaning and disinfection of the farm  Possible source of the infection: human
  18. 18. ASF in domestic pigs 1st case (3) 18  Location of the farm and zones
  19. 19. ASF in domestic pigs 2nd and 3rd case (1) 19  On 16th of July the owner noticed depression and loss of appetite in one of his pig farms, on the 18th of July he notices the same clinical signs in his other pig farm. Some pigs had already died  In total 546 pigs were kept in two farms  On 19th of July veterinarians visited both farms and carried out clinical examination and took samples:  Blood, kidney, spleen  On 20th of July Veterinary and Food Laboratory confirmed ASF diagnose  Measures taken by VFB:  Restrictions on the farm, epidemiological investigation  Zoning and restrictions on the farms in the zones  Destruction of the carcasses in the rendering plant  Cleaning and disinfection of the farm
  20. 20. ASF in domestic pigs 2nd and 3rd case (2) 20  Location of the farms and zones
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. ASF in domestic pigs Current situation (1) 22No of the outbreak Location Date of the confirmation No of culled pigs 1 Valga county 21.07.2015 1 2 Viljandi county 21.07.2015 355 3 Viljandi county 21.07.2015 191 4 Viljandi county 28.07.2015 6 5 Tartu county 30.07.2015 1186 + (145) 6 Järva county 30.07.2015 483 7 Valga county 31.07.2015 3 8 Lääne-Viru county 04.08.2015 2 9 Viljandi county 05.08.2015 2149 10 Jõgeva county 08.08.2015 6426 11 Võru county 12.08.2015 1868 12 Viljandi county 12.08.2015 3072 13 Valga county 19.08.2015 5 14 Jõgeva county 20.08.2015 2329 15 Tartu county 25.08.2015 3804 16 Valga county 25.08.2015 120 17 Viljandi county 29.08.2015 15 18 Võru county 22.09.2015 104 (cross-breed) Total 22 119 (+145)
  23. 23. ASF in domestic pigs Current situation (2) 23  Map with surveillance zones of 18 infected farms
  24. 24. Cooperation 24  National Disease Control Centre meeting  Local Disease Control Centre meeting  Several meetings with hunting organizations, pig farmers  Biosecurity  Hunting  Additional feeding
  25. 25. Hunting, feeding 25  According to the decree of Envirnomental Board:  Bating is not allowed during the period of 01.10.2015-30.04.2016  Hunting from hides – bating is allowed (100 kg per slot, on the fround 10 kg of feed)  Driven hunts are allowed ( it was not allowed since autumn 2014)
  26. 26. Preventive/control measures (1) 26  All live pig transport vehicles from Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russian Federation and Belarus have 48 hours standstill before entering the farm and new loading  Additional cleaning and disinfection on the territory of Estonia must be carried out and proved with documents  Import ban for non-heat treated feed from the infected areas in Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russian Federation and Belarus  Luhamaa BIP (approved for live animal imports)- documentary and physical checks for cleaning and disinfection
  27. 27. Preventive/control measures (2)27  In cooperation with Customs – personal luggage checks  Awareness campaigns  Leaflets in 2 languages – posted directly to farmers  TV, radio, press notices  Special webpage http://www.agri.ee/et/seakatk
  28. 28. Preventive/control measures (3) 28
  29. 29. Challenges Destruction of carcasses (1) 29  Destruction of carcasses vs capacity of rendering plant  Capacity 50 tons  Need to destroy 350 tons from one farm  How? When?
  30. 30. Challenges Destruction of carcasses (2) 30  Burial of carcasses  Identification of the site  Burial (workers, skills, equipment)  Environmental protection  Concern from civilians
  31. 31. Animal of the year 2015 – (wise) wild boar 31 Thank you for your attention!

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