Infromation Blur

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  • 人の行為を数学的正確さに基づいて,コンピュータが解釈し,修整する
    例えばスケッチパッドを使って正方形を描くときは,ライトペンで一本の線を引いて,『Copy-copy-copy, attach-attach-attach, その角度は九〇度で,四つの辺は等しい』と入力すれば,スケッチパッドがバッ! とやって,正方形ができる.
    Rubber-Band Line:ペンを見失ってはいけない.常に指さしていることを要求=常に指さされているという認識が必要
  • TWO USE of a light pen are pointing and drawing. Pointing ( a and b ) tells a computer which parts of a drawing to erase or move. Drawing ( c ) is done with a tracking program. Here, to move the end of a line, the operator points at the end and pushes a “move” button; the computer follows the pen by displaying cross-like arrays of spots 100 times a second. Each time, the computer ascertains the outer vertical and horizontal spots seen by pen, computes position of pen’s center and redisplays line to end there. [’Computer inputs and outputs’ Ivan Sutherland, 1966]
  • Because of this facility an the ease and accuracy with which observations and measurements can be made, the device has had great importance in many diverse applications. As a laboratory and factory instrument, it is widely used for both qualitative and quantitative studies of electrical phenomena and of other phenomena that can be reduced to electrical terms. The geometrical picture that it presents makes it peculiarly appropriate as an indicator for television and radar. (p. 1)
  • One should realize and admit that the display data channel is not a mere data channel at all; it is a processor. From here on out one's thinking about the display changes radically

    ユーザへの情報の提示のみだけでなく,光の点の選択などの情報処理の場でもあるという考え
    Pen tracking
    To initially establish pen tracking, the Sketchpad user must inform the computer of an initial pen location. This has come to be known as “inking-up” and is done by “touching” any existing line or spot on the display, whereupon the tracking cross appears. If no picture has yet been drawn, the letters INK are always displayed for this purpose. Sketchpad uses loss of tracking as a “termination signal” to stop drawing. The user signals that he is finished drawing by flicking the pen too fast for the tracking program to follow.

    So, for a little more money, one makes the stack system a little more elaborate by adding instructions to push the current x and y beam position and the display parameters into the stack, and pop them back.
  • The chip is pure surface, pure simulation of thought. Its material surface is its meaning without history, without depth, without aura, affect or feeling. The copy reproduces the world, the chip simulates it. It is the difference between being able to remake the world and being able to efface it. The micro-electronic chip draws us into a realm, a design for living, that fosters a fetishized relationship with the simulation as new reality all its own based on the capacity to control, within the domain of the simulation, what had once eluded control beyond it. The orchids of immediate reality that Benjamin was wont to admire have become the paper flowers of the cybernetic simulation. (p. 633)
  • ギブソン『生態学的視覚論』
    光の科学は光学(optics)とよばれている.しかしながら視覚の科学も光学(optics)とよばれる.そして,視覚の科学に関する教科書はその違いについて,全く明確にしていない.そこで物理的エネルギーとしての光と,視覚に対する刺激としての光と,知覚情報としての光をそれぞれ区別してみよう.(p. 51)

    これまでに説明し,その意味について述べてきた放射光と包囲光の区別を考えてみよう.放射光は証明を作り出し,包囲光は証明の結果である.放射光はエネルギー源から生ずるが,包囲光は観察点に収れんする.放射光は無限に密集した光線から成り立つが,包囲光は共通の頂点をもつ一組の立体角である.1つの点光源からの放射光はどの方向に対しても差違がないが,ある一点における包囲光は,方向によって異なる.放射光は構造をもたないが,包囲光には構造がある.放射光は伝播されるが,包囲光は伝播されるのではなく,単にそこに存在するだけである.放射光は原子から生じて原子に帰るのに対し,包囲光は周囲に存在する面の状況に依存している.放射光はエネルギーだが,包囲光は情報である.(p. 55)

    視知覚は単に刺激作用の欠如のみならず,刺激情報が欠けても成立し得ない.等質の暗闇では視覚は刺激作用の欠如のために生起しないし,等質的包囲光配列の条件では,適切な刺激作用とそれに対応する感覚があったとしても,情報の欠如のために視覚は生じない.(p. 58)
    Visual perception can fail not only for lack of stimulation but also for lack of stimulus information. In homogeneous ambient darkness, vision fails for lack of stimulation. In homogeneous ambient light, vision fails for lack of information, even with adequate stimulation and corresponding sensations. (p. 54)
    ギブソン『直接知覚論の根拠』
    光配列は,光配列を発する対象群に関する情報を伝えると考えて良いだろう.(p. 30)

    点光源から発する放射光線束を物理エネルギーとして扱ったり物理エネルギーとして測定することは,何ら問題ない.しかし,観察点に達する収束光線束は,エネルギーそのものとしてではなく,潜在的に刺激するエネルギーとして扱うべきなのではないか,そしてそれは,物理エネルギーと同じ方法では測定できないのではないか.包囲光の光線は,放射光の光線とは異なると考えるべきだと提案したい.(p. 41)

    私は次のように主張する.光学の分野でこれまで確立されてきた様々な研究領域は,視感覚《visual sensation》の研究には適しているが,視知覚《visual perception》の研究には向いていない.視知覚は,我々が抱く感覚にではなく,光に含まれる情報に対する注意《attention》に立脚している.生態光学の使命は,包囲光《ambient light》の中に情報が存在することを実証することである.しかし,物理光学・幾何光学・生理光学は全て,「光の中に情報(即ち,反射光の源である普通の事物に関する情報)は存在しない」という共通の前提に立っている.現代の知覚理論では,この問題を避けて通るための言い逃れが横行しているが,これは決して避けて通れない問題である.そのこのことは,生態光学が理論の上で決定的に重要な理由である.それは,どの種類の光学を受け容れるかによって,どのような知覚理論をとるのかが自ずから規定されるからである.(pp. 56-57)

    I argue that the establish branches of optics are appropriate for the study of visual sensations but not for the study of visual perception. I maintain that visual perception is not based on having sensations but on attention to the information in light. The essence of ecological optics is the demonstration that there is information in ambient light.  The common assumption of physical, geometric, and physiological optics, however, is that there is no information in light, that is, no information about the ordinary things from which the light is reflected. A good deal of hedging goes on in perceptual theory today in the attempt to avoid facing this issue, but I am convinced that it is unavoidable. And this is the reason why ecological optics is theoretically crucial. The kind of optics one accepts determines one's theory of perception. (p. 73)

    ロンバート『ギブソンの生態学的心理学』
    環境は光エネルギーを反射するので,kろえによって媒質は,反射した光エネルギーで満たされる.刺激作用は,伝達される.一方,情報は,環境に固有の構造であるが,伝達されない.包囲光は,定常状態として存在し,構造はこの定常状態の中に具現されている.構造は,どの観察位置にも存在する.情報は,それらの観察位置に運ばれるのではない.自然界における光のエネルギーの速度がどのようであろうと,光エネルギーなしでは構造は存在しえないが,構造それ自体が伝達されるわけではない.エイドラは,存在しないのである.従ってギブソンは,知覚系が情報を受け取るとは,決して言っていない.知覚系は,情報に共鳴する.環境から,刺激作用へ,感覚器官へ,そして脳へと進む因果連鎖は存在しない.情報に対する共鳴によって動物と環境との境界面に達成される統合こそが,存在するのである.(p. 401)
  • To put is another way, Seurat’s work concretizes the modern dilemma of the disappearance of aura more acutely than any other art practice. It can be reasonably claimed that his paintings are the first attempt to rationally produce aura, and his “theories” an attempt to concoct its formula. His immersion in the mechanics of vision was directed to the creation of a luminosity with no direct material substrate, of a chromatic unfolding existing apart form the mere objectivity of the work, that “appears” only in a subjective, even “interpersonal” relation to it.
  • ギブソン『直接知覚論の根拠』
    即ち,「眼のシステムは,本質的に,光配列の集合に含まれる,環境に関する情報を取得するための機構であり,そのような情報を取得することで,眼のシステムは環境に見合った行動を制御することが可能になる」という仮説である.(p. 55)
    An ocular system is essentially a mechanism for registering the information about the environment in a set of optic arrays. It thereby makes possible the control of behavior with respect to the environment. (p. 72)
  • Infromation Blur

    1. 1. Sketchpad exemplified a new paradigm of interacting with computers: by changing something on the screen, the operator changed something in the computer's memory. The real-time screen became interactive. However, in the analogue world images are not information in the sense that they have become bits and pixels in the digital world. In fact, some serious questions need to be asked about the role of aesthetics and design as the distinction between images and information blurs into pixels, lines, and rates of compression. •
    2. 2. • • • • • • •
    3. 3. Concepts which never before had any visual representation can be shown, for example the “constraints” in Sketchpad. •
    4. 4. A hand-held tool of enormous importance is one that, when applied to a surface, leaves traces and thus affords trace-making. The tool may be a stylus, brush, crayon, pen, or pencil, but if it marks the the surface it can be used to depict and to write, to represent scenes and to specify words. • •
    5. 5. • • • •
    6. 6. Unlike an ordinary pencil, the stylus itself does not make any direct mark on the display. The computer is placed, in effect, between the “point of the pencil” and the “paper.” The light pen is a photosensitive device which responds to the light generated by an intensified point on the scope face and which amplifies, shapes and transmits this response back to the computer where it can be tested by the program and used as a branch condition. •
    7. 7. The cathode-ray tube is a form of visual indicator that permits an interpretation of electrical phenomena in terms of a picture painted on a phosphorescent screen by a sharply focused beam of electrons which is controlled in position and intensity by electrical signals. Under the proper conditions it paints this picture in an extremely facile way, being capable of utilizing many millions of separate data per second. • •
    8. 8. One should realize and admit that the display data channel is not a mere data channel at all; it is a processor. From here on out one's thinking about the display changes radically To use the opposition introduced in the "Cultural Interfaces" section, we can say that the screen keeps alternating between the dimensions of representation and control. What at one moment was a fictional universe becomes a set of buttons that demand action. •
    9. 9. • •
    10. 10. His (Seuratʼs) immersion in the mechanics of vision was directed to the creation of a luminosity with no direct material substrate. The chip is pure surface, pure simulation of thought. Its material surface is its meaning without history, without depth, without aura, affect or feeling. The copy reproduces the world, the chip simulates it. It is the difference between being able to remake the world and being able to efface it. The micro-electronic chip draws us into a realm, a design for living, that fosters a fetishized relationship with the simulation as new reality all its own based on the capacity to control, within the domain of the simulation, what had once eluded control beyond it. •
    11. 11. The essence of ecological optics is the demonstration that there is information in ambient light.  The common assumption of physical, geometric, and physiological optics, however, is that there is no information in light, that is, no information about the ordinary things from which the light is reflected. • The information displayed is dual. The picture is both a scene and a surface, and the scene is paradoxically behind the surface. •
    12. 12. We need to understand the apprehension of virtual objects and, of course, virtual places, events, and persons. We can only do in connection with the perceiving of the real surfaces of the environment, including the picture surfaces. Note that our distinction between virtual and real will have to be independent of the distinction in classical optics between virtual and real images, which is swamped in epistemological confusion. •
    13. 13. The impressionists painted light on. Seurat painted light through, making paint itself the light source. By utilizing the Newtonian analysis of the fragmentation of light, he (Seurat) came to the technique of divisionism, whereby each dot of paint becomes the equivalent of an actual light source, a sun, as it were. •
    14. 14. The peculiarity of television, as distinguished from photographs and movies, is that the image is constituted by light-through; shifting mosaic illuminations project themselves at the viewer. In a word, the message of the electric light is total change. It is pure information without any content to restrict its transforming and informing power. •
    15. 15.
    16. 16. • • • •
    17. 17. • • •

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