Research ArticlesResearch articles in the sciences aregenerally reports of experiments or otherforms of analysis. They introduce the topic,explain how the work was done, whatresulted, and how that results might beinterpreted. Research articles areconsidered primary sources because theycontain the original research informationand/or data.
Parts of a Research Article• Introduction• Materials and Methods• Results• Discussion• Conclusions• Bibliography or Literature Cited or References
Review ArticlesReview articles are generally written byexperts in the fields, and they provide anoverview of a topic. They are often referredto as secondary literature, since they donot directly report on an experiment or othernew idea.
What do Review Articles Do?• Provide background• Include a bibliography of the primary research literature• Help you identify a narrower area of interest
Brainstorming KeywordsEffects ofMaternal cholesterol Effects of bacon Maternal On fetal development Prenatal Fetal dev. cholesterol Bacon Swine Hog development
Search Tips• Combine ideas or sets with AND – Using "AND" is a form of Boolean Searching (and, or, not). – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oa66AxTbjxA&feature=youtu. be&t=3m19s• Use the subject terms the database provides, to be comprehensive• Use a wildcard (*) to get words with various endings – forest* (= forest, forests, forestry, forester) – signal* – father*
Databases• Google Scholar• Pubmed• Ovid Medline• FSTA
University of Minnesota Definition of PlagiarismPlagiarism shall mean representing thewords, creative work, or ideasof another person as ones own withoutproviding proper documentationof source.
Examples• Copying information word for word from a source without usingquotation marks and giving proper acknowledgement by way offootnote, endnote, or in-text citation;• Representing the words, ideas, or data of another person as onesown without providing proper attribution to the author throughquotation, reference, in-text citation, or footnote;• Producing, without proper attribution, any form of workoriginated by another person, such as a musical phrase, a proof, aspeech, an image, experimental data, laboratory report, graphicdesign or computer code;• Paraphrasing, without sufficient acknowledgment, ideas taken fromanother person that the reader might reasonably mistake as theauthors.• Borrowing various words, ideas, phrases, or data from originalsources and blending them with ones own without acknowledging thesources.
How to use other people’s words and ideas Summarizing Paraphrasing Quoting • Text is much • Text may be • Text is exact shorter than shorter or length of original longer than original. • Must use your original • Uses original own words • Must use your author’s exact • Must cite own words words original source • Must cite • Uses quotation original source marks or block quotes • Includes page number • Must cite original source
ExerciseOriginal quotation:"Roosevelt first used the term Square Dealfollowing the settlement of a mining strike in 1902to describe the ideal of peaceful coexistencebetween big business and labour unions. TheSquare Deal concept was later largelyincorporated into the platform of the ProgressiveParty, when Roosevelt was its presidentialcandidate in 1912" (Britannica, p. 184).
Example 1Paraphrase: Roosevelt invented THE TERM SQUARE DEAL after theMINING STRIKE IN 1902 was settled TO DESCRIBE THE IDEAL OFPEACEFUL cooperation BETWEEN BIG BUSINESS AND LABORUNIONS. THE SQUARE DEAL CONCEPT WAS LATER LARGELYworked INTO THE PLATFORM OF THE PROGRESSIVE PARTY,WHEN ROOSEVELT WAS ITS PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE IN 1912.Is it plagiarism?Why? YES!• Substituting new words, and changing a few words around in the sentences doesnt make it a paraphrase!• The structure of the two sentences is virtually identical.• There is no citation (Britannica, p.184) at the end of the paraphrase,pointing out the source of the information.
Example 2Paraphrase: Roosevelt first used the term Square Deal to describe theideal of peaceful coexistence between big business and labor unions,although it was later largely incorporated into the platform of theProgressive Party, when Roosevelt was its presidential candidate in1912 (Britannica, p. 184).Is it plagiarism?Why? YES!• Omitting a few words from the sentences doesn’t make it aparaphrase!• The structure of the paraphrase is still almost identical to that of theoriginal quotation.• OK—at least this person used a citation at the end of the―paraphrase‖!
Example 3Paraphrase: Although originally used in reference to relationshipsbetween companies and labor unions, the Square Deal ultimatelybecame a component of the Progressive party platform in 1912.Is it plagiarism? YES!Why?•The author did not cite the original source.
Example 4Paraphrase: Although originally used in reference to relationshipsbetween companies and labor unions, the Square Deal ultimatelybecame a component of the Progressive party platform in 1912(Britannica, p. 184).Is it plagiarism? No!Why?• Summarized in author’s own words.• Cites source
Image CreditsSCRTD – Employee Aerobic Class RTD_1481_11, CC BY-NC-SA, Metro Transportation Library andArchive,FlickrIMCOM-E Fitness Day 2010, CC BY-NC, Herald Post, FlickrBibliography, CC BY-NC, papertrix, Flickr