Chem: Matter powerpoint


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Chem: Matter powerpoint

  1. 1. Chemistry: The Study of Change<br /> <br />
  2. 2. Chemistry: A Science for the 21st Century<br /><ul><li> Health and Medicine
  3. 3. Sanitation systems
  4. 4. Surgery with anesthesia
  5. 5. Vaccines and antibiotics
  6. 6. Energy and the Environment
  7. 7. Fossil fuels
  8. 8. Solar energy
  9. 9. Nuclear energy</li></ul>1.1<br />
  10. 10. Chemistry: A Science for the 21st Century<br /><ul><li> Materials and Technology
  11. 11. Polymers, ceramics, liquid crystals
  12. 12. Room-temperature superconductors?
  13. 13. Molecular computing?
  14. 14. Food and Agriculture
  15. 15. Genetically modified crops
  16. 16. “Natural” pesticides
  17. 17. Specialized fertilizers</li></ul>1.1<br />
  18. 18. testedmodified<br />The scientific method is a systematic approach to research<br />A hypothesis is a tentative explanation for a set of observations<br />A law is a concise statement of a relationship between phenomena that is always the same under the same conditions.<br />1.3<br />
  19. 19. Chemistry is the study of matter and the<br />changes it undergoes<br />Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass.<br /> A substance is a form of matter that has a definite composition and distinct properties.<br />water, ammonia, sucrose, gold, oxygen<br />1.4<br />
  20. 20. soft drink, milk, solder<br />cement, <br />iron filings in sand<br />A mixture is a combination of two or more substances in which the substances retain their distinct identities.<br />Homogenous mixture – composition of the mixture is the same throughout.<br />Heterogeneous mixture – composition is not uniform throughout.<br />1.4<br />
  21. 21. magnet<br />distillation<br />Physical means can be used to separate a mixture into its pure components.<br />1.4<br />
  22. 22. Fractional Distillation Apparatus<br />12.6<br />
  23. 23. An element is a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemicalmeans.<br /><ul><li>113 elements have been identified
  24. 24. 82 elements occur naturally on Earth</li></ul>gold, aluminum, lead, oxygen, carbon<br /><ul><li> 31 elements have been created by scientists</li></ul>technetium, americium, seaborgium<br />1.4<br />
  25. 25. Scandium<br />Titanium<br />Vanadium<br />Chromium<br />Manganese<br />Iron<br />Cobalt<br />Nickel<br />Copper<br />22.2<br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27. Water (H2O)<br />Glucose (C6H12O6)<br />Ammonia (NH3)<br />A compound is a substance composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions.<br />Compounds can only be separated into their pure components (elements) by chemical means.<br />1.4<br />
  28. 28. 1.4<br />
  29. 29. gas<br />solid<br />liquid<br />Three States of Matter<br />1.5<br />
  30. 30. sugar dissolving <br />in water<br />ice melting<br />hydrogen burns in air to form water<br />Physical or Chemical?<br />A physical change does not alter the composition or identity of a substance.<br />A chemical change alters the composition or identity of the substance(s) involved.<br />1.6<br />
  31. 31. Extensive and Intensive Properties<br />An extensive property of a material depends upon how much matter is is being considered.<br /><ul><li> mass
  32. 32. length
  33. 33. volume</li></ul>An intensive property of a material does not depend upon how much matter is is being considered.<br /><ul><li> density
  34. 34. temperature
  35. 35. color</li></ul>1.6<br />
  36. 36. weight = c x mass<br />A 1 kg bar will weigh<br />on earth, c = 1.0<br />1 kg on earth<br />on moon, c ~ 0.1<br />0.1 kg on moon<br />Matter - anything that occupies space and has mass.<br />mass – measure of the quantity of matter<br />SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg)<br />1 kg = 1000 g = 1 x 103 g<br />weight – force that gravity exerts on an object<br />1.7<br />
  37. 37. Volume – SI derived unit for volume is cubic meter (m3)<br />1 cm3 = (1 x 10-2 m)3 = 1 x 10-6 m3<br />1 dm3 = (1 x 10-1 m)3 = 1 x 10-3 m3<br />1 L = 1000 mL = 1000 cm3 = 1 dm3<br />1 mL = 1 cm3<br />1.7<br />
  38. 38. mass<br />density = <br />volume<br />A piece of platinum metal with a density of 21.5 g/cm3 has a volume of 4.49 cm3. What is its mass?<br />m<br />m<br />d =<br />d =<br />V<br />V<br />Density – SI derived unit for density is kg/m3<br />1 g/cm3 = 1 g/mL = 1000 kg/m3<br />= 21.5 g/cm3 x 4.49 cm3 = 96.5 g<br />m = d x V<br />1.7<br />
  39. 39. nitric acid<br />HNO3<br />carbonic acid<br />H2CO3<br />H2SO4<br />sulfuric acid<br />An acid can be defined as a substance that yields <br />hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water.<br />HCl<br /><ul><li>Pure substance, hydrogen chloride
  40. 40. Dissolved in water (H+ Cl-), hydrochloric acid</li></ul>An oxoacid is an acid that contains hydrogen, oxygen, and another element.<br />HNO3<br />2.7<br />
  41. 41. 2HCl (aq) + Mg (s) MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)<br />2HCl (aq) + CaCO3 (s) CaCl2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)<br />Acids<br />Have a sour taste. Vinegar owes its taste to acetic acid. Citrus<br />fruits contain citric acid.<br />Cause color changes in plant dyes.<br />React with certain metals to produce hydrogen gas.<br />React with carbonates and bicarbonates to produce carbon <br />dioxide gas<br />Aqueous acid solutions conduct electricity.<br />4.3<br />
  42. 42. pH – A Measure of Acidity<br />Solution Is<br />pH = 7<br />neutral<br />acidic<br />pH < 7<br />basic<br />pH > 7<br />15.3<br />
  43. 43. 2.7<br />
  44. 44. sodium hydroxide<br />NaOH<br />potassium hydroxide<br />KOH<br />Ba(OH)2<br />barium hydroxide<br />A base can be defined as a substance that yields <br />hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water.<br />2.7<br />
  45. 45. Bases<br />Have a bitter taste.<br />Feel slippery. Many soaps contain bases.<br />Cause color changes in plant dyes.<br />Aqueous base solutions conduct electricity.<br />4.3<br />
  46. 46. Salts<br /> A salt, is defined as the product formed from the neutralization reaction of acids and bases. Salts are ionic compounds composed of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge)<br />
  47. 47. acid + base salt + water<br />HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaCl (aq) + H2O<br />H+ + Cl- + Na+ + OH- Na+ + Cl- + H2O<br />H+ + OH- H2O<br />Neutralization Reaction<br />4.3<br />
  48. 48. 2.7<br />
  49. 49. Solution<br />Solvent<br />Solute<br />A solution is a homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances<br />The solute is(are) the substance(s) present in the smaller amount(s)<br />The solvent is the substance present in the larger amount<br />H2O<br />Soft drink (l)<br />Sugar, CO2<br />Air (g)<br />N2<br />O2, Ar, CH4<br />Pb<br />Sn<br />Soft Solder (s)<br />4.1<br />
  50. 50. Heterogeneous Mixtures<br />Colloidal dispersions<br /><ul><li>Colloids are mixtures in which the particles of one or more components have at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 10 nm, larger than those in a solution but smaller than those in a suspension.
  51. 51. Colloids are the same as suspensions, except they don’t leave sediments
  52. 52. In general, a colloid or colloidal dispersion is a substance with components of one or two phases.
  53. 53. It creates the Tyndall effect when light passes through it. A colloid will not settle. Jelly, milk, blood, paint, fog, shampoo, and glue are examples of colloid dispersions.</li></li></ul><li>Tyndall Effect<br />
  54. 54. Classification of Colloids<br />
  55. 55. Suspension <br /><ul><li>is a heterogeneous fluid containing solid particles that are sufficiently large for sedimentation
  56. 56. Usually they must be larger than 1</li></ul>Coarse Mixture<br /><ul><li>a coarse mixture is a mixture of substances which when you mix all substances you can see the ingredients or substances that are mixed it is not dissolved.</li></li></ul><li>Atoms, Molecules and Ions<br />
  57. 57. Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808)<br />Elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms. All atoms of a given element are identical, having the same size, mass and chemical properties. The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements.<br />Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element. The relative number of atoms of each element in a given compound is always the same.<br />Chemical reactions only involve the rearrangement of atoms. Atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions.<br />2.1<br />
  58. 58. 2<br />Law of Multiple Proportions<br />2.1<br />
  59. 59. 16 X<br />8 Y<br />+<br />8 X2Y<br />Law of Conservation of Mass<br />2.1<br />
  60. 60. A<br />X<br />Mass Number<br />Element Symbol<br />Z<br />Atomic Number<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />H (D)<br />H (T)<br />H<br />1<br />1<br />1<br />235<br />238<br />U<br />U<br />92<br />92<br />Atomic number (Z) = number of protons in nucleus<br /> Mass number (A) = number of protons + number of neutrons <br /> = atomic number (Z) + number of neutrons<br />Isotopes are atoms of the same element (X) with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei<br />2.3<br />
  61. 61. 2.3<br />
  62. 62. 14<br />11<br />C<br />C<br />6<br />6<br />How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in<br />How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in<br />?<br />?<br />Do You Understand Isotopes?<br />6 protons, 8 (14 - 6) neutrons, 6 electrons<br />6 protons, 5 (11 - 6) neutrons, 6 electrons<br />2.3<br />
  63. 63. Isomers - are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formula. Isomers do not necessarily share similar properties unless they also have the same functional groups. <br />
  64. 64. Isobars<br /> Isobars are defined as the atoms or ions having same atomic mass but different atomic numbers. They are generally formed by subsequent beta emissions in which the atomic number changes by one unit but the atomic mass remains almost same as the mass of beta particles are negligible as compared to neutrons or protons.<br />Example: 54Cr and 54Fe, 112Cd and 112Sn are isobars.<br />
  65. 65. Allotropes<br />Different forms of the same element in the same physical state<br />Examples: O3 and O2 ; Diamond and Graphite<br />
  66. 66.
  67. 67. Noble Gas<br />Halogen<br />Alkali Earth Metal<br />Period<br />Group<br />Alkali Metal<br />2.4<br />
  68. 68. Chemistry In Action<br />Natural abundance of elements in Earth’s crust<br />Natural abundance of elements in human body<br />2.4<br />
  69. 69. H2<br />H2O<br />NH3<br />CH4<br />A molecule is an aggregate of two or more atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds<br />A diatomic molecule contains only two atoms<br />H2, N2, O2, Br2, HCl, CO<br />A polyatomic molecule contains more than two atoms<br />O3, H2O, NH3, CH4<br />2.5<br />
  70. 70. 11 protons<br />11 electrons<br />11 protons<br />10 electrons<br />Na+<br />Na<br />17 protons<br />18 electrons<br />17 protons<br />17 electrons<br />Cl-<br />Cl<br />An ion is an atom, or group of atoms, that has a net positive or negative charge.<br />cation – ion with a positive charge<br /> If a neutral atom loses one or more electrons<br /> it becomes a cation.<br />anion – ion with a negative charge<br /> If a neutral atom gains one or more electrons<br /> it becomes an anion.<br />2.5<br />
  71. 71. A monatomic ion contains only one atom<br />Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, O2-, Al3+, N3-<br />A polyatomic ion contains more than one atom<br />OH-, CN-, NH4+, NO3-<br />2.5<br />
  72. 72. How many protons and electrons are in ?<br />How many protons and electrons are in ?<br />27<br />78<br />3+<br />2-<br />Al<br />Al<br />13<br />34<br />Do You Understand Ions?<br />13 protons, 10 (13 – 3) electrons<br />34 protons, 36 (34 + 2) electrons<br />2.5<br />
  73. 73. 2.5<br />
  74. 74. 2.6<br />
  75. 75. molecular<br />empirical<br />H2O<br />A molecular formula shows the exact number of atoms of each element in the smallest unit of a substance<br />An empirical formula shows the simplest <br />whole-number ratio of the atoms in a substance<br />H2O<br />CH2O<br />C6H12O6<br />O3<br />O<br />N2H4<br />NH2<br />2.6<br />
  76. 76. ionic compounds consist of a combination of cations and an anions<br /><ul><li> the formula is always the same as the empirical formula
  77. 77. the sum of the charges on the cation(s) and anion(s) in each formula unit must equal zero</li></ul>The ionic compound NaCl<br />2.6<br />
  78. 78. 2 x +3 = +6<br />3 x -2 = -6<br />1 x +2 = +2<br />2 x -1 = -2<br />1 x +2 = +2<br />1 x -2 = -2<br />Formula of Ionic Compounds<br />Al2O3<br />Al3+<br />O2-<br />CaBr2<br />Ca2+<br />Br-<br />Na2CO3<br />Na+<br />CO32-<br />2.6<br />
  79. 79. 2.6<br />
  80. 80. 2.7<br />
  81. 81. Molecular compounds<br /><ul><li>nonmetals or nonmetals + metalloids
  82. 82. common names</li></ul>H2O, NH3, CH4, C60<br /><ul><li>last element ends in ide</li></ul>2.7<br />
  83. 83. TOXIC!<br />Laughing Gas<br />Molecular Compounds<br />HI<br />hydrogen iodide<br />NF3<br />nitrogen trifluoride<br />SO2<br />sulfur dioxide<br />N2Cl4<br />dinitrogen tetrachloride<br />NO2<br />nitrogen dioxide<br />N2O<br />dinitrogen monoxide<br />2.7<br />
  84. 84. 2.7<br />