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  1. 1. Making a convincing argument
  2. 2. Persuasive Aim <ul><li>is used to accomplish one of two basic purposes: </li></ul><ul><li>1) To change the reader’s attitudes or beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>2) To get the reader to do something. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Logical Persuasive Arguments <ul><li>are built on an opinion supported by reasons and evidence . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reasons <ul><li>Reasons tell why everyone should accept an opinion as true. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: A ban on smoking in public places would reduce the risk of developing lung cancer via secondhand smoke inhalation. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Evidence <ul><li>Facts & statistics -are strong because it’s hard to argue with the facts. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Prolonged exposure to secondhand smoke increases one’s risk of developing cancer by 55%. </li></ul><ul><li>Expert testimony- statements made by experts in the field are convincing. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: “The risk of developing lung cancer from secondhand smoke is significant,” said Dr. Jim Williams, a leading pulmonary oncologist at Johns Hopkins Medical Research Center. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Logical fallacies are statements that sound logical and factual, but they’re not.
  7. 7. Hasty Generalization <ul><li>is coming to a conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: All of my friends whose parents smoke have asthma and are certain to develop lung cancer as a result. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Name Calling <ul><li>is attacking the person who holds the view rather than the view itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Mayor Smith is calling for restaurant and bars to ban smoking, but he recently was arrested for DWI and cannot be trusted. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Either/or <ul><li>is describing a situation as though there were only two choices when there may actually be several. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Either smoking be banned in public places, or citizens are doomed to die slow, painful deaths. </li></ul>
  10. 10. False Cause and Effect <ul><ul><li>asserting that because Event B followed Event A, A caused B. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Since Arlington banned smoking in restaurants and bars, my favorite restaurant chain went out of business two weeks later. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. should reinforce logical arguments, not replace them.
  12. 12. Loaded Words <ul><li>are words that are heavy with emotional connotations. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Smokers endanger the lives of innocent children and sentence them to lives riddled with health problems. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Glittering Generalities <ul><li>A type of loaded words, they are so strongly positive that they “glitter” and make you feel good. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Smoking a Camel after a satisfying meal---it’s the American way. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Bandwagon Appeal <ul><li>the belief that something should be done because the majority of people do it (or wish to do it). </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: 20 of the 30 major U.S. cities have already enacted a ban on public smoking and Dallas shouldn’t be the last. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Testimonials <ul><li>when a celebrity endorses a product unrelated to their field of expertise. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Tony Hawk and Miley Cyrus support the ban on smoking in public places. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>appealing mostly to logic (facts & expertise) </li></ul><ul><li>keeping emotional appeals to a minimum </li></ul><ul><li>avoiding all fallacies </li></ul>