Say: Currently, there is a disconnect between the cognitive rigor of the content standards that students are to be learning, the cognitive rigor of the actual work students are doing and the cognitive rigor of the summative assessment. The revised taxonomy is a two dimensional system that identifies both the structure of knowledge and the cognitive processes students are expected to demonstrate. With RBT, teachers and administrators are assured of an increased alignment of instruction, assessment and state standards. Say: Our first session today is an effort to clarify the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy and provide you with enough guidance that you may continue this journey of exploring the taxonomy once this training is over. Our work today, or over the next few days, is not enough to make you an expert in the use of Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy. We will begin that journey today but each of you must chart your own course and set your own pace to mastery.
Making sure that everyone is on the same page is the point.
Say: A major difference between the 2006and 2010 standards is the presence of only one verb. Only 25 verbs will be used in the revised Essential Standards . This will greatly enhance the likeliness of alignment. 6 verbs serve as Categories and the remaining 19 serve as cognitive processes that may be classified in the 6 categories. Other verbs will be incorporated into the standards at the instruction level during differentiation.
V i r tual L essons W i th A she County School s M ovi ng T owar d Compl ete A l i gnment I n Soci al Studi esUnder standi ng H ow T o A ppl y R evi sed B l oom’s T axonomy
Today’s Presentation Will Assist Participants With: Understanding how to use the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy (RBT) to align classroom instruction and assessment to the new social studies essential standards. 2
Pre-AssessmentQuestion # 1How should you use Answerthe table below in The RBT Taxonomy Table should be used to helpinstruction and determine the learningassessment? experiences and assessment tasks for which you ask students to participate. 06/19/12 • page 4
Pre-AssessmentQuestion #2True or False? The assessmentbelow is aligned to the clarifyingobjective. Answer CO: Summarize the change in cultures, everyday life, and status of indigenous False An Appropriate Assessment: American Indian groups in North Carolina before and after European exploration. Have the student read a passage that describes changes in AmericanAssessment: Indians’ culture and lives.The lives of American Indianswere changed when Europeans Read the passage above and write acame to the New World . Tell few sentences describing how life changed for American Indians as ahow farming, hunting and result of European exploration of theeveryday life within their tribes New World.changed for the AmericanIndians. 06/19/12 • page 5
Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy (RBT) Provides a common language for all curriculum areas by indicating what a learning or assessment task was intended to measure by cognitive type by type of knowledge Provides a framework that may “help teachers plan and deliver appropriate instruction, design valid assessment tasks and strategies, and ensure that instruction and assessment are aligned with the objectives.” (p.xxii)
The Alignment QuestionHow does one ensure that objectives, instruction and assessment are consistent with one another? ? ? ?
The Structure of Curriculum s e tiv Cl ec Students as bj sr O o g om in ify As ar se Cl ss s/ m rd en da ts n ta lS n t ia se Es Learning Experiences/Performance Tasks Materials and EquipmentImage of students with globe. Image no. 3Q1675 Photo by Will & Deni McIntyre
The Importance of Alignment “Alignment is an even stronger predictor of student achievement on standardized tests than aresocioeconomic status, gender, race, and teacher effect.” ~ Elmore & Rothman, 1999: Mitchell, 1998; Wishnick,1989
Content Alignment “Does the teacher teach andassess the factual, conceptual, and procedural knowledge outlined in the curriculum?” What is Written… What is Taught… What is Tested…
Cognitive Type Alignment “Do the students get to work and think at the level the curriculum prescribes?”
Context Alignment “Are the parameters of the assessment reasonably similar to the parameters of the instruction?”
Learning occurs best when there is a purposeful process that creates complete alignment.
Let’s Perform A Quick ActivityDirections: Thirteen Original Colonies 2.Virginia 3.Rhode Island 4.GeorgiaBy yourself, classify the 13 original 5.New York 6.Delaware 7.New Jerseycolonies according to which were 8.North Carolina 9.South Carolina New England, Middle or 10.Pennsylvania 11.Massachusetts 12.New HampshireSouthern. (2 minutes ) 13.Maryland 14.Connecticut
Now, Let’s AssessDirections:Using the map place the 13 colonies with their correct alphabet andindicate numerically the chronological order each was established from 1 to 13. (2 minutes )
The Cognitive Dimension Is The AlignmentTh For Standards & Assessment eR BT Ve r bs
Remember Retrieving relevant knowledge from long term memory… (verbatim, unchanged by student)Cognitive Processes: 1.1 Recognizing (identifying) 1.2 Recalling (retrieving) Remembering is essential for meaningful learning and problem- solving. It is used in more complex tasks.
Recall Or Recognition? Question What is the effect if the teacher does not clarify thedifferences between RECOGNIZE and RECALL when preparing an assessment? AnswerThe assessment will bemisaligned with the objective and possibly instruction. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o1RjI7G8rFw&feature=related
The line of demarcation among the 6 cognitive categories is REMEMBER Remember rote learning All others meaningful learning (transfer) Rote learning requires students to remember what they learned. Transfer requires students to remember but also make sense of what they have learned.
Understand Constructing meaning from instructional messages, including oral, written and graphic communicationCognitive Processes: 2.1 Interpreting Understand cognitive processes are the most 2.2 Exemplifying represented in state standards 2.3 Classifying More cognitive processes are associated with 2.4 Summarizing this category than any other category 2.5 Inferring 2.6 Comparing The learner grasps the meaning of information by interpreting and translating what has been 2.7 Explaining learned.
An Assessment ExampleCognitive Clarifying Objective ExampleProcesses AssessmentSummarize CE.PFL.2.2 Read the following article: http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/times Summarize various types of fraudulent solicitation and business practices. or Watch the following clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SsSGZez Summarize in three sentences or less the fraudulent business practice described in either the article or video clip.
An Assessment ExampleCognitive Clarifying Objective ExampleProcesses AssessmentExplain WH.6.1 Construct a cause and Explain how new ideas effect graphic organizer and theories of the explaining how a scientific or enlightened thinker’s universe altered political ideas impacted political, thought and affected economic, or social economic and social conditions in 17TH & 18TH conditions. century America.
Analyze Break material into its constituent parts and determine how the parts relate to one another and to an overall purpose.Cognitive Processes: 4.1 Differentiating [e.g. the relevant from the irrelevantparts.] 4.2 Organizing [Identifying the elements of acommunication or situation and recognizing how they fittogether in a coherent structure. The student buildssystematic and coherent connections among pieces ofpresented information.] 4.3 Attributing [the underlying purpose or perspective – reading between the lines.]
Examples of Assessing Analyze Cognitive Example Example Processes Of Learning Objective Assessment Analyze The student will Circle the main points inDifferentiating distinguish the major an archeological report and minor points in on an ancient Mayan city. research reports. Organizing Write an outline that shows which The student will structure a facts, in the book Ancient Maya: The Rise and Fall of a Rainforest historical description into Civilization, support and which facts do not support the evidence for and against a conclusion that the decline of the particular explanation. civilization was caused by influences of the Europeans. Attributing Determine if a report on the The student will determine decline of the Mayan rainforest the point of view of the was written from a pro- environmental or pro-economic author of an essay on a point of view. controversial topic.
Evaluate Make judgments based on criteria and standards.Cognitive Processes: 5.1 Checking [testing for internal consistencies or fallacies in an operation or product – check as you go along] 5.2 Critiquing [judging a product or operation based on externally imposed criteria and standards.]
Examples of Assessing Evaluate Cognitive Example ExampleProcesses Of Learning Objective Assessment Evaluate Checking The student will check Watch a television for internal advertisement for a inconsistencies in political candidate and persuasive messages. point out any logical flaws in the persuasive message. Critiquing The student will judge Evaluate key points in a the merits of a product, effect or occurrence political candidate’s based on specified or agreed upon criteria speech in terms of the and standards. potential impact each point may have on citizens.
When you combine the verbs (cognitive processes) with the nouns (knowledge) you end up with a two- dimensional table.
Analyze colonization in terms of the desire foraccess to resources and markets as well as the consequences on indigenous cultures, population, and environment . 33
Construct maps, charts, and graphs toexplain data about geographic phenomena. 34
Your Turn To PracticeDirections:2.Working with a group or a partner, determine where the clarifyingobjective you are working with lies on the Taxonomy Table.3.With your group or partner come up with a classroom assessmentfor the clarifying objective. (5 minutes ) Choose to work with either the middle or high school objective. Middle School 6.H.2.1 Explain how invasions, conquests, and migrations affected various civilizations, societies and regions (e.g. Mongol invasion, The Crusades, the Peopling of the Americas and Alexander the Great). High School WH.5.2 Explain the causes and effects of exploration and expansion. 06/19/12 • page 35
Some Conclusions About RBT To solve shared problems in instruction and assessment, we need a shared system of classification (an agreed upon taxonomy). That shared taxonomy provides a common way to ensure that instruction and assessment are aligned with the objectives and a common language to talk about RBT is our shared them. taxonomy! Without a shared taxonomy, learning, instruction and assessment have the potential to be all over the place.