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The Search for Authenticity in
Tourism and Conservation Ventures
Marisol Mayorga
mmayorga @ksu.edu
May 2014
In this globalized world, how does your organization
The issue
The issue
• As globalization advances, cultures become
homogenized.
The issue
• As globalization advances, cultures become
homogenized.
• Places look like any other, languages disappear,
and...
The issue
• As globalization advances, cultures become
homogenized.
• Places look like any other, languages disappear,
and...
Overview
• The Concept of Authenticity. Why now?
• Customer Sensibilities
• The Progression of Economic Value
• The Offeri...
The Concept of Authenticity. Why Now?
Today, customers want experiences that:
Feel real
Fashion
self-image
Feel
trustworthy
• Pay for experiences that feel real, authentic.
• Deal less with technology, more with “real
people”
Feel real
• Create their own social reality through self-
expression
• Adjust the perception of authenticity to self-
image of diffe...
• Trust in transparency of social institutions
(business, education, government, charity,
church)
Feel
trustworthy
Customer Sensibilities
“What customers buy must reflect who they are and who
they aspire to be in relation to how they per...
Customer Sensibilities
Economic output
Commodities
(Agrarian)
Goods
(Industrial)
Services Experience
Business imperative S...
The Progression of Economic Value
Extract
commodities
Make
goods
Deliver
services
Stage
experiences
Guide
transformations
...
Extract commodities
Make goods
Deliver services
Coffee Shop, Café Britt
Costa Rica
Coffee Tour, Café Britt
Costa Rica
Stage experiences
Guide Transformations
The Offering and Perception of
Authenticity
Landscape of Authenticity
• Organizations offer five genres of perceived authenticity
Landscape of Authenticity
• Organizations offer five genres of perceived authenticity
• Each one is connected to the econo...
Landscape of Authenticity
• Organizations offer five genres of perceived authenticity
• Each one is connected to the econo...
Commodities –
Natural authenticity
Goods –
Original authenticity
Services –
Exceptional authenticity
Experiences –
Referen...
Commodities –Natural
authenticity.
Natural state in or of the
earth, remaining
untouched by human
hands; not artificial or...
Goods –Original
authenticity.
Originality in design,
being the first of its kind,
never before seen by
human eyes; not a c...
Services –Exceptional
authenticity.
Done exceptionally well,
by someone
demonstrating human
care; not unfeelingly or
disin...
Experiences –Referential
authenticity.
Refers to other context,
drawing inspiration from
human history, tapping
into our s...
Transformations –
Influential authenticity.
Exerts influence, calling
human beings to a higher
goal; not inconsequential
o...
Implications for Touristic and
Conservation Venues
• Appling all five genres is not always possible,
not even desirable.
• A (well executed) combination, however,
might appe...
Interpretation and Authenticity
Commodities –
Natural authenticity
Goods –
Original authenticity
Services –
Exceptional authenticity
Experiences –
Referen...
Commodities –
Natural authenticity
Goods –
Original authenticity
Services –
Exceptional authenticity
Experiences –
Referen...
Commodities –
Natural authenticity
Goods –
Original authenticity
Services –
Exceptional authenticity
Experiences –
Referen...
Experiences –
Referential authenticity
Transformations –
Influential authenticity
•Interpretation could
play a fundamental...
The Search for Authenticity in
Tourism and Conservation Ventures
Marisol Mayorga
mmayorga @ksu.edu
May 2014
The Search for Authenticity
The Search for Authenticity
The Search for Authenticity
The Search for Authenticity
The Search for Authenticity
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The Search for Authenticity

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In tourism, authenticity has been studied from many different angles, for example, to understand guests’ perceived authenticity at tourist city attractions and at staged cultural performances in indigenous villages, or how tourists discuss existential/experiential authenticity in cultural restaurant experiences. Most research on authenticity has been performed in cultural settings, and there is still much to understand about tourist experience perceptions in natural landscapes, like the rainforest in Costa Rica or the grasslands in Kansas, as well as the role of experience design and planning in these settings.

Published in: Services, Spiritual, Business
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The Search for Authenticity

  1. 1. The Search for Authenticity in Tourism and Conservation Ventures Marisol Mayorga mmayorga @ksu.edu May 2014
  2. 2. In this globalized world, how does your organization
  3. 3. The issue
  4. 4. The issue • As globalization advances, cultures become homogenized.
  5. 5. The issue • As globalization advances, cultures become homogenized. • Places look like any other, languages disappear, and multinationals are omnipresent.
  6. 6. The issue • As globalization advances, cultures become homogenized. • Places look like any other, languages disappear, and multinationals are omnipresent. • Authentic experiences are harder to find for a tourism market that increasingly seeks them out.
  7. 7. Overview • The Concept of Authenticity. Why now? • Customer Sensibilities • The Progression of Economic Value • The Offering and Perception of Authenticity • Landscape of Authenticity • Implications for Protected Areas • Interpretation and Authenticity
  8. 8. The Concept of Authenticity. Why Now?
  9. 9. Today, customers want experiences that: Feel real Fashion self-image Feel trustworthy
  10. 10. • Pay for experiences that feel real, authentic. • Deal less with technology, more with “real people” Feel real
  11. 11. • Create their own social reality through self- expression • Adjust the perception of authenticity to self- image of different generations Fashion self-image
  12. 12. • Trust in transparency of social institutions (business, education, government, charity, church) Feel trustworthy
  13. 13. Customer Sensibilities “What customers buy must reflect who they are and who they aspire to be in relation to how they perceive the world.”
  14. 14. Customer Sensibilities Economic output Commodities (Agrarian) Goods (Industrial) Services Experience Business imperative Supply Control Improve Render Customer sensibility Availability Cost Quality Authenticity Added by Pine & GilmoreTraditional Model
  15. 15. The Progression of Economic Value Extract commodities Make goods Deliver services Stage experiences Guide transformations (Render authenticity) (Improve quality) (Control costs) (Supply availability) Added by Pine & GilmoreTraditional Model
  16. 16. Extract commodities
  17. 17. Make goods
  18. 18. Deliver services
  19. 19. Coffee Shop, Café Britt Costa Rica
  20. 20. Coffee Tour, Café Britt Costa Rica
  21. 21. Stage experiences
  22. 22. Guide Transformations
  23. 23. The Offering and Perception of Authenticity
  24. 24. Landscape of Authenticity • Organizations offer five genres of perceived authenticity
  25. 25. Landscape of Authenticity • Organizations offer five genres of perceived authenticity • Each one is connected to the economic offerings (commodities, goods, services, experiences transformations)
  26. 26. Landscape of Authenticity • Organizations offer five genres of perceived authenticity • Each one is connected to the economic offerings (commodities, goods, services, experiences transformations) • They are related to the design of places, objects, and activities
  27. 27. Commodities – Natural authenticity Goods – Original authenticity Services – Exceptional authenticity Experiences – Referential authenticity Transformations – Influential authenticity Landscape of Authenticity
  28. 28. Commodities –Natural authenticity. Natural state in or of the earth, remaining untouched by human hands; not artificial or synthetic. Kew Botanical Garden England
  29. 29. Goods –Original authenticity. Originality in design, being the first of its kind, never before seen by human eyes; not a copy or imitation. Fort Jesus, Kenia
  30. 30. Services –Exceptional authenticity. Done exceptionally well, by someone demonstrating human care; not unfeelingly or disingenuously performed. Fort Jesus, Kenia
  31. 31. Experiences –Referential authenticity. Refers to other context, drawing inspiration from human history, tapping into our shared memories. Tower fo Belem, Portugal
  32. 32. Transformations – Influential authenticity. Exerts influence, calling human beings to a higher goal; not inconsequential or without meaning. Cross made out of bullet case, Liberia
  33. 33. Implications for Touristic and Conservation Venues
  34. 34. • Appling all five genres is not always possible, not even desirable. • A (well executed) combination, however, might appeal to the desire for authenticity.
  35. 35. Interpretation and Authenticity
  36. 36. Commodities – Natural authenticity Goods – Original authenticity Services – Exceptional authenticity Experiences – Referential authenticity Transformations – Influential authenticity
  37. 37. Commodities – Natural authenticity Goods – Original authenticity Services – Exceptional authenticity Experiences – Referential authenticity Transformations – Influential authenticity Connections, meanings Design, management
  38. 38. Commodities – Natural authenticity Goods – Original authenticity Services – Exceptional authenticity Experiences – Referential authenticity Transformations – Influential authenticity •Authenticity on tourists’ overall experience plays an important role to influence the customers’ visitation choices
  39. 39. Experiences – Referential authenticity Transformations – Influential authenticity •Interpretation could play a fundamental role revealing the authenticity of a place, for the audience to create connections and meanings.
  40. 40. The Search for Authenticity in Tourism and Conservation Ventures Marisol Mayorga mmayorga @ksu.edu May 2014

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