Relevant Terms to Consider JournalismThe collection and editing of news for presentation through themedia Discussion:Considering the definition of journalism above, answer the followingquestions about journalists:1. What is a journalist?2. What does he or she do?3. Why is his or her job important?4. What is an arts and entertainment journalist?5. What do they contribute to the news media?
Post-Discussion ReflectionWhy are arts and entertainment journalistsimportant?In Journalism, this question is answered very clearly andeloquently.“This occupational group within journalism is worthy of studybecause of its distinctive professional and cultural role: whilearts journalists share aspects of their professional cultureswith other newsworkers, their work is intrinsically linked tothe project of improving „public appreciation of the arts‟”(Harries 620).
Jobs for Arts & Entertainment Journalists Art Editor/ Editor-In-Chief A person responsible for the editorial aspects of publication; the person who determines the final content of a text (especially of a newspaper or magazine)This person is responsible for overlooking all of the content published in or on their particular form of media. They will choose the best stories, reviews, and photographs for the publication and decide how they are arranged. .
Jobs for Arts & Entertainment Journalists CriticOne who expresses a reasoned opinion on any matter especially involving a judgment of its value, truth, righteousness, beauty, or techniqueOne who engages often professionally in the analysis, evaluation, or appreciation of works of art or artistic performances An arts and entertainment critic closely observes art, movies, theater, music, video games, dance, television, and books and writes either positive or negative review for a publication. They are expected to provide background information as well as critiques.
Jobs for Arts & Entertainment Journalists PhotographerA person who takes photographs, either as a hobby or as a profession Paparazzo A freelance photographer who pursues celebrities tryingto take candid photographs of them to sell to newspapers or magazines
Jobs for Arts & Entertainment Journalists ReporterA person employed by a newspaper, magazine, or television company to gather and report news An arts and entertainment reporter is responsible for jobs assigned to more general types of journalists, such as interviewing sources and creating news stories and gathering all relevant pictures, video, audio. They will simply be focused more on issues of culture more so than other journalists.
Jobs for Arts & Entertainment Journalists Freelance A person who pursues a profession without a long-term commitment to any one employerWhile some arts and entertainment journalistsare employed by a specific organization, manychoose to leave their options open and submittheir work to different publications. There arefreelance journalists, photographers,paparazzi, and critics in arts and entertainmentmedia.
Standing Out: What makes arts and entertainment journalists different? “Arts reporters…do not fit comfortably into the professional category of the journalist” (Harries 623).Journalists are expected to deliver the news, truthfully and objectively, to their audience. Artsand entertainment journalists are held to the same standard to a certain extent. However, inmany cases, arts and entertainment journalists cannot be objective in their coverage. Forexample, in order to review a film, a critic needs to form an opinion about that film. Opinion isexactly what most journalists try to avoid, but arts and entertainment journalists are allowedmuch more leeway when it comes to being objectivity because their job REQIRES opinion.According to Journalism, their “professional identity is tied to their ability to pass judgment oncultural products, and their role in mediating the arts” (Harries 622).Arts and entertainment journalists are different from most other types of journalists becausethey are allowed more expressive freedoms. Unlike most people in other fields of journalism,arts and entertainment reporters are allowed and encouraged to make interpretations andform opinions about what they report on. Arts and entertainment journalists tend to separatethemselves from other reporters in media.From Journalism:• “…arts reporters elevated themselves above the regular news journalist, suggesting that they must be able to not only write in an informed manner, but also „translate their passion and knowledge in a way that will both interest and inspire audiences/readers‟” (Harries 626).
AuthorityBecause arts and entertainment journalists are allowed to be less objective, some other journalists do notvalue their work. In an article in The Arizona Republic, Columbia University‟s National Arts Journalismprogram‟s deputy director Andras Szanto said, “My job, and the job of those I work with, is to remind theindustry that the arts are hard news…Often they‟re thought of as what your wife and children do on theweekend.” Even though “the authority of critics often hangs in the balance, journalistic authority generallyholds firm” (Harries 624).• What determines “authority”? • Size of audience • Journalistic platform • Passion for the subject • Education on the subject; specializing (i.e. a degree) Therefore, arts and entertainment reporters who work for a major news organization will often have more authority because their audience is larger. They will also be expected to have more education on the subject then, say, an entertainment blogger. In the workplace, “high culture arts critics occupy higher rungs of the newsroom hierarchy, and are also viewed as inherently more authoritative and therefore able to pass judgment on the object of their criticism” (Harries 622).
Advertising: Effects on CriticsLook at the following excerpts to see how the need for advertising sometimes impacts arts and entertainmentjournalists.From a Newsweek article:“The mass media exist for only two reasons. One is that people read us or watch us; the other is that peopleand companies use us to advertise. These are, of course, connected. If people dont read or watch us,advertisers wont use us. But if advertisers dont use us--for whatever reason--then we will lose our audiences.Advertising pays the bills. Newspapers, for example, receive 70 to 80 percent of their revenues from ads(circulation is most of the rest). If ads evaporate, the mass media wont be able to afford the programs andnews staffs that attract audiences.”Personal narrative from freelance journalist:"The problem is that a lot of editors see criticism as an adjunct of marketing. Theyre happy only when its apositive review, because then you have a writer whos with the program," says Charles Taylor, a critic of film,books, and music who until recently contributed to the Newark Star-Ledger on a freelance basis. According toTaylor, he nearly lost one of his gigs (not his gig at the Star-Ledger, which was eliminated in a mass purge atthe paper last year) because he wrote a critical review of a popular movie.“ Theres a common point of view,"he explains. "You dont assign a review to someone who doesnt like the work. Oh, really? Thats publicity;thats not criticism. There is a pressure on the critic to be positive, and, in terms of print, at least, its tied toadvertising dollars."
A Journalist‟s Reflection on Working in Arts and Entertainment“Arts journalists are always at the bottom of thepecking order. This order is determined by fundingand space. Sport gets pages and pages of footballstory after football story. The arts journalist gets nextto nothing. If I am traveling somewhere, the paperwon‟t pay; our funding comes from symphonyorchestras or opera companies, but if a sportsreporter wants to go and cover yet another footballstory, it‟s „OK, here‟s £1000!‟ It‟s disgusting how thearts are treated by the press.” - Wilfred, Freelance Music Critic
Lorne Manly (seen on the left), the entertainment editor of The New YorkTimes answered viewers‟ questions about entertainment coverage. Anaspiring arts journalist asked for career advice, and Manly respondedindicating the future for arts and entertainment journalists is bleak.