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El Jazz I El Blues

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El Jazz I El Blues

  1. 1. El jazz i el blues
  2. 2. El jazz <ul><li>Inicis </li></ul><ul><li>Tractament especial del so i del ritme </li></ul><ul><li>↓ </li></ul><ul><li>el swing </li></ul><ul><li>Ús del sistema modal </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Característiques de l'estil New Orleans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Formació de la banda: de 6 a 9 músics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Secció rítmica: piano, banjo, guitarra, tuba o contrabaix i bateria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Secció melòdica: trompeta (melodia principal), clarinet (contrapunt improvisat), trombó (glissandos) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4.  Improvisació col·lectiva. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5.  Accents en temps fort. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6.  Ús de formules sincopades, harmonies elementals i ús del blues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Representants: The Original Dixieland Jazz Band, Thomas Jefferson </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Característiques de l’Estil Chicago </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Conjunt de 6 a 9 músics, algunes orquestres sobrepassen els 10. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Secció rítmica: piano, banjo o guitarra, tuba o contrabaix i bateria. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Secció melòdica: trompeta, clarinet, trombó i per primera vegada incorporació del saxòfon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Improvisació individual: predomini dels solistes per damunt del conjunt en les improvisacions. Quan hi ha varies línies melòdiques, acostumen a anar paral·leles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Època dels primers grans solistes: Lous Armstrong i Duke Ellington </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Pulsació rítmica en els temps febles. Es desplacen cap el 2n i 4t temps, sobretot a la bateria.   </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Característiques principals l’Estil de NY o l’era del Swing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Big Bands, conjunts de 12 a 16 musics amb una gran importància dels solistes en contrast amb el conjunt. És la formació més gran i complexa del jazz que marcarà una època. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Secció rítmica: piano, guitarra, tuba o contrabaix i bateria. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Secció melòdica: dues seccions de vent-metall: trompetes i trombons.Una secció de vent-fusta (saxofons alts, saxofons tenors i clarinets). Els instrumentistes es posen drets quan han de fer solos.Melodies molt més elaborades. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Estil riff: frases de pregunta- resposta dins de la orquestra. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Pulsació rítmica marcada en 4 temps. Els estils anteriors marcaven un ritme de dos cops. En el swing el bombo marca els 4 temps però el 2n i el 4t s’accentuen amb un ritme especial: treset de negra i corxera. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Necessitat d’arranjaments per orquestra: es guanya en complexitat orquestral i es perd en espontaneitat i improvisació. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Representants: Ella Fitzgerald (cantant), Glenn Miller i la seva Big Band. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Característiques del BE-BOP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Deixa de banda la regularitat de fons de la bateria i es converteix en un instrument autònom dins del conjunt: això fa que el be-bop sigui només per escoltar i no per ballar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Els instruments toquen les frases a una velocitat tant ràpida que s’elimina qualsevol comparació amb la veu negra. Gran habilitat tècnica dels intèrprets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Improvisacions emmarcades pel tema principal presentat a l’uníson a l’inici i final de la peça generalment tocat per trompeta i saxofon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. L’harmonia i els ritmes del be-bop són més complexes i la seva interpretació requereix més virtuosisme per part de l’intèrpret i més esforç intel·lectual per part de l’oient. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. El piano té una faceta més percutiva   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Representants: Charlie Parker (saxo), Kenny Clarke (bateria) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. El blues <ul><li>Anys ’30 -> estandarització estructura de 12 compassos actual: </li></ul><ul><li>Utilització de l’escala de blues -> blue notes </li></ul>

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