Future of Geospatial Information Use
1990’s <ul><li>Critics painted GIS as a positivist epistemology which has inherent limitations  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scie...
Limitations <ul><li>Can not model on-the-ground processes and local dynamics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GIS was largely conduct...
GIS Terminology <ul><li>Language we commonly know </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Project, save project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Public Participation GIS <ul><li>The outcome of Critical GIS movement </li></ul><ul><li>Term derived from urban planning w...
Bottom-Up GIS <ul><li>Community members seen as role leaders and key for decision making in approaches to urban planning i...
Role of Web-based GIS <ul><li>Web-based GIS was seen as a means of improving access and transparency </li></ul><ul><li>Inf...
The Reality <ul><li>Web-GIS is subject to nearly all the same critiques highlighted in traditional GIS </li></ul><ul><li>W...
Reality in the 90’s  <ul><li>Web-GIS projects add complexity to traditional community-based GIS by increasing development ...
http://www.ccg.leeds.ac.uk/projects/slaithwaite/
http://www.evl.uic.edu/sopark/new/RA/#sub1
http://www.cityoforlando.net/gis/interactive_mapping.htm
States of Citizen Engagement  <ul><li>Web GIS were isolated information silos  </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction was primarily...
Current Generation Web-GIS <ul><li>Users can do the same as before but more. </li></ul><ul><li>Users can Upload and Downlo...
What Changed ? <ul><li>New forms of Geospatial Data built upon extensible markup language </li></ul><ul><li>GeoRSS Feeds <...
Open Source Movement <ul><li>GIS moved out of the basement and into the forefront of development </li></ul><ul><li>Google ...
 
 
Neogeography <ul><li>Geographical techniques and tools used for personal activities or for utilization by a non-expert gro...
It all about the user
New data formats <ul><li>Allows users to create data that easily integrates with richer formats of information </li></ul><...
Collaborative Mapping <ul><li>A diverse commons of mapping data constantly updated by citizens, governments and the privat...
Ubiquitous Computing <ul><li>As phones get smarter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Android (google’s new mobile platform) </li></ul>...
What Does the Future Hold? <ul><li>More Collaborative mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Data that is more relevant and more refine...
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Changing Role Of Geospatial Technology

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  • Changing Role Of Geospatial Technology

    1. 1. Future of Geospatial Information Use
    2. 2. 1990’s <ul><li>Critics painted GIS as a positivist epistemology which has inherent limitations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific knowledge as the only authentic knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This lead to the emergence of Critical GIS debate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GIS is not Value Neutral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And does not meet the needs of marginalized populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has significant limitations </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Limitations <ul><li>Can not model on-the-ground processes and local dynamics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GIS was largely conducted by technicians who did not necessarily possess understanding of local dynamics and local knowledge but instead acted as facilitators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GIS failed to encompass other ways of knowing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The non-expert mapper’s geospatial language did not match terminology inherent in the GISystem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This limited its application </li></ul>
    4. 4. GIS Terminology <ul><li>Language we commonly know </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Project, save project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May Layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raster and Vector data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limits of storing non-spatial data in tables and databases linked to shape files </li></ul>
    5. 5. Public Participation GIS <ul><li>The outcome of Critical GIS movement </li></ul><ul><li>Term derived from urban planning where community interests intersect with GIS technology </li></ul><ul><li>This lead to increased transparency within urban planning through bottom-up GIS </li></ul><ul><li>The community members are no longer seen as passive actors within the planning process but active participants </li></ul><ul><li>This lead to a more holistic approach incorporated within the planning process </li></ul>
    6. 6. Bottom-Up GIS <ul><li>Community members seen as role leaders and key for decision making in approaches to urban planning issues </li></ul><ul><li>Academically researchers attempt to make their work more accessible and relevant to the community </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom-Up approach similar to User-Centered models implemented in Website design </li></ul>
    7. 7. Role of Web-based GIS <ul><li>Web-based GIS was seen as a means of improving access and transparency </li></ul><ul><li>Information was now available 24/7 and participation could be incorporated through forums and online chatting and discussion groups </li></ul><ul><li>This was thought to democratize GIS within the professional and academic spheres </li></ul>
    8. 8. The Reality <ul><li>Web-GIS is subject to nearly all the same critiques highlighted in traditional GIS </li></ul><ul><li>Web-GIS developed and controlled by the major stakeholders ie. The city or the university </li></ul><ul><li>Data acquisition is expensive and can sometimes involve interpersonal contingencies and power relationships ie the city official calls in a favor with MNR but MNR requests certain caveats </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility for development, maintenance, usage, and financial solvency is dispersed through a network of overlapping actors which can increase cost to maintain </li></ul>
    9. 9. Reality in the 90’s <ul><li>Web-GIS projects add complexity to traditional community-based GIS by increasing development costs, widening the client base, and heightening public visibility. </li></ul><ul><li>They also consider only those individuals who are computer literate and have access to computer resources </li></ul>
    10. 10. http://www.ccg.leeds.ac.uk/projects/slaithwaite/
    11. 11. http://www.evl.uic.edu/sopark/new/RA/#sub1
    12. 12. http://www.cityoforlando.net/gis/interactive_mapping.htm
    13. 13. States of Citizen Engagement <ul><li>Web GIS were isolated information silos </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction was primarily one way. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users could view data and input information that would be stored on a local server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial data could be accessed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maps could be created and printed out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users could add their own data </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Current Generation Web-GIS <ul><li>Users can do the same as before but more. </li></ul><ul><li>Users can Upload and Download </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data no longer is stored on the local server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues of ownership has changed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Users can generate and distribute their own content. </li></ul><ul><li>This causes a rise in the economic value of the web as users can do more. </li></ul>
    15. 15. What Changed ? <ul><li>New forms of Geospatial Data built upon extensible markup language </li></ul><ul><li>GeoRSS Feeds </li></ul><ul><li>Keyhole Markup Language </li></ul><ul><li>Invention of the KML extension as means of geospatial data sharing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shapefiles can be converted to KML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KML can be read by Desktop GIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google maps can be exported to KML </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Open Source Movement <ul><li>GIS moved out of the basement and into the forefront of development </li></ul><ul><li>Google maps, Google Earth, Yahoo! Maps, Virtual Earth, ArcWeb </li></ul><ul><li>Easy mapping, Age of the amateur </li></ul>
    17. 19. Neogeography <ul><li>Geographical techniques and tools used for personal activities or for utilization by a non-expert group of users; not formal or analytical </li></ul>
    18. 20. It all about the user
    19. 21. New data formats <ul><li>Allows users to create data that easily integrates with richer formats of information </li></ul><ul><li>This will create a Geoweb where geographic information is tied to abstract information - Geobrowsers </li></ul><ul><li>People can then search for things based on location instead of only keywords eg http://nearbynow.com/ </li></ul>
    20. 22. Collaborative Mapping <ul><li>A diverse commons of mapping data constantly updated by citizens, governments and the private sector </li></ul><ul><li>Data creation is following in the foot steps of Wikipedia and other social applications </li></ul><ul><li>Open Street Map - started in 2004, amateurs (in the best sense of the word), hobbyists and 'true believers' </li></ul><ul><li>'The Success of Collaborative Mapping'? - a diverse commons of mapping data constantly updated by citizens, governments and the private sector </li></ul>
    21. 23. Ubiquitous Computing <ul><li>As phones get smarter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Android (google’s new mobile platform) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iPhone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geospatial information becomes more important - searching by location is more valid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It also becomes easier to create Geospatial data </li></ul></ul>
    22. 24. What Does the Future Hold? <ul><li>More Collaborative mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Data that is more relevant and more refined to specific locations </li></ul><ul><li>Greater availability of standard geospatial data for free or lower cost </li></ul><ul><li>More innovation at the hands of amateurs which will drive industry rather than vice versa </li></ul>

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