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TSS 2017: Terminology and Knowledge Organization Systems

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Terminology Summer School 2017
What is a KOS, what are its benefits, typical examples, the role it plays in the Semantic Web. What is the difference between a classification, a taxonomy, a thesaurus, an ontology.

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TSS 2017: Terminology and Knowledge Organization Systems

  1. 1. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 Terminology and Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) Michael Wetzel Coreon GmbH, Berlin (based on works from Gerhard Budin, University Vienna)
  2. 2. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 Big = Unstructured = Text = Multilingual
  3. 3. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 Touchpoints between Terminology and Knowledge Organization Exist in Several Areas Semantic indexing of term entries • Manage and control large terminology resources with an emphasis on content Semantic Web • Process increasingly digitalized data resources, web services, and systems Multilingual KOS • Terminology as the vehicle and is the entry point Ontologization • Repurpose terminology resources for domain ontologies
  4. 4. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 Types of Knowledge Organization Systems Classification Systems • Hierarchical concept systems, usually domain-specific, sometimes universal in scope Taxonomies, Nomenclatures • Often in natural sciences: systematic arrangements of terms seen as “scientific names” Thesauri • In information science: controlled vocabularies for indexing and information retrieval Ontologies • In IT: formal conceptual shared specifications, domain ontologies often created by formalizing the previously listed types of KOS Semantic Richness
  5. 5. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 An Example to Start with – the GEMET Thesaurus https://www.eionet.europa.eu/gemet/
  6. 6. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 Knowledge Organization … definitely more than MS Sharepoint • Part of – information and library science, – philosophy of science and of epistemology, – also of knowledge management and knowledge engineering, and – terminology science • To investigate and represent structures of knowledge • Epistemological aspects, cognitive science aspects • Linguistic and socio-cultural aspects (e.g. folk taxonomies) • Historical aspects (e.g. Leibniz, encyclopedism, administrative categorizations in ancient societies, history of science, etc.) • Practical work: creating and using knowledge organization systems • A crucial process in linguistic action (sprachliches Handeln) – Text organization both in reception and production
  7. 7. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 Practical Functions of Knowledge Organization Systems Master To structure and archive the content of large scale collections Design Model structural components of information systems and products Find Support targeted retrieval of information based on conceptual search criteria Enjoy Search aids, visual navigation, query languages Communicate Support tools (cross-lingual, cross-disciplinary, cross-cultural) Share Instruments of corporate knowledge management Learn Teaching support, orientation support, didactic tools
  8. 8. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 Characteristics of Knowledge Organization Systems Model conceptual structures (hierarchical and non-hierarchical structures) Explicitation of conceptual links, definitions (mono- or multilingual) Terminological and linguistic standardization Increasingly formalized and digital (in particular as „ontologies“) Different scales (small KOS to large ones, 200K+ concepts) Increasingly with visualized structures, interactive user interfaces Static or dynamic (e.g. ontologies for modelling business processes in companies)
  9. 9. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 Domain-specific Knowledge Organization Systems Medicine, health, bio- and life sciences Business, trade Industry, engineering Natural sciences Administration, government Culture Pedagogy Linguistics …
  10. 10. And the Greatest … www.businessinsider.com/different-types-of-beer-2014-12
  11. 11. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 Ontologies: Highly Formalized Knowledge Systems • Computer science – From: traditional field of philosophy (theory of being, existence, theory of objects, etc.) – To: formal, digitally represented concept systems / knowledge systems • Concepts are explicitly defined, terms are assigned • Relations between concepts are made explicit • Terms are standardized • Logical application rules and constraints are specified – Allows inferencing
  12. 12. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 Semantic Web: From the Web of Documents to the Web of Data • so that a computer program can learn enough about what the data means to process it. “Web of data” • so that data can be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries. Common framework • www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb Led by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) • the Resource Description Framework • integrates a variety of applications using XML for syntax and URIs for naming. Based on RDF
  13. 13. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 Vocabularies – they Make the Semantic Web Work • Define the concepts and relationships – To describe and represent an area of concern – Classify terms – Define constraints on using terms • Can be very complex or very simple • No clear distinction between vocabularies and ontologies – Ontology for more complex and quite formal collections • Basic building blocks for inference techniques
  14. 14. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 RDF Plays a Key Role in Representing Vocabularies • Resource Description Framework: a family of W3C specifications • Knowledge represented in machine-readable way • Make statements about resources in form of triples, subject-predicate-object expressions • Several serialization formats Subject Object Predicate “Mark Twain is the author of Huckleberry Finn” <http://example.org/person/Mark_Twain> <http://example.org/relation/author> <http://example.org/books/Huckleberry_Finn> . <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_Twain> dc:relation “author"; dc:book “HuckleBerry_Finn". TurtleN3
  15. 15. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 Standard #1: OWL, the Web Ontology Language • Family of knowledge representation languages for authoring ontologies • Languages are characterized by formal semantics and RDF/XML-based serializations for the Semantic Web. • Based on the RDF specification
  16. 16. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 Standard #2, SKOS, the Simple Knowledge Organization System • W3C standard, based on RDF • Enables a migration towards OWL ontologies (“missing link”). • Often required by Web services • Not a formal knowledge representation language • Not a formal ontology (no axioms, etc.) • For modeling controlled vocabularies such as thesauri or classifications which are of a different nature than formal ontologies. • Ideas or meanings described by thesauri or other kinds of terminology are referred to as “concepts” • -> “skosification” of controlled vocabularies (thesauri, etc.) and other terminologies!
  17. 17. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 How SKOS and RDF are Supposed to Work … <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://eurovoc.europa.eu/4539"> <xl:prefLabel rdf:resource="http://eurovoc.europa.eu/218000"/> <xl:prefLabel rdf:resource="http://eurovoc.europa.eu/344555"/> <skos:related rdf:resource="http://eurovoc.europa.eu/5347"/> <xl:prefLabel rdf:resource="http://eurovoc.europa.eu/405682"/> <xl:prefLabel rdf:resource="http://eurovoc.europa.eu/270751"/> <xl:prefLabel rdf:resource="http://eurovoc.europa.eu/419332"/> <xl:prefLabel rdf:resource="http://eurovoc.europa.eu/370706"/> <xl:prefLabel rdf:resource="http://eurovoc.europa.eu/322434"/> <xl:prefLabel rdf:resource="http://eurovoc.europa.eu/284664"/> <dc:identifier>4539</dc:identifier> <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://eurovoc.europa.eu/schema#ThesaurusConcept"/> <xl:prefLabel rdf:resource="http://eurovoc.europa.eu/357674"/> <xl:prefLabel rdf:resource="http://eurovoc.europa.eu/143712"/> <xl:prefLabel rdf:resource="http://eurovoc.europa.eu/380681"/> <xl:prefLabel rdf:resource="http://eurovoc.europa.eu/300398"/> … </rdf:Description> … … <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://eurovoc.europa.eu/218000"> <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://eurovoc.europa.eu/schema#PreferredTerm"/> <eu:termReleasedWithVersion>n/a</eu:termReleasedWithVersion> <xl:literalForm xml:lang="en">land transport</xl:literalForm> </rdf:Description> … … I herewith inform about #4539 Look into #218000, there you will find one of my preferred labels I have a related concept – look into #5347 I am a Concept, nothing else I herewith inform about #218000 I am a PreferredTerm, nothing else My value is land transport, for English
  18. 18. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 Thesaurus Example: Eurovoc • Maintained by: European Unions Publications Office • V4.5 (June 2016): 6643 concepts, 21 domains, 127 microthesauri, 23 languages • Multidisciplinary, covers: – Parliamentary activities – European Union, EU legislation, EU activities, EU policies, EU institutions, EU regions • Exact equivalence between concepts – No coverage of regional or national concepts Terminological standardization of indexing vocabularies for accurate documentary searches Documents indexed in the documentalist’s language, searches made in the user’s language
  19. 19. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 Thesaurus Example: Eurovoc
  20. 20. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 Eurovoc Distribution: Available to anyone for Use! • Online: http://eurovoc.europa. eu • Download: SKOS / RDF or XML • Free to use, re-use, link and redistribute for commercial or non- commercial purposes!
  21. 21. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 Other Important Thesauri • GEMET – General European Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus • UNESCO Thesaurus • CEDEFOP Thesaurus (vocational training) • AAT – Art and Architecture Thesaurus • AGROVOC Thesaurus (FAO) • General Trends – Preparing for Semantic web applications – RDF, SKOS, Linked Data, ontologies – Networking/mapping/interoperability Find more Purchase pre-built ones
  22. 22. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 Summary: Types of Resources are Different by Degree of Complexity Lists •Ambiguity Synonym Rings •Synonymy Taxonomy •Hierarchical relations Thesaurus •Hierarchical Relations •Associative Relations Ontology •Several variants of typed relations •Entity classes •…
  23. 23. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 Editor for Ontologies: Protégé
  24. 24. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 Taxonomies: Established in Content Management Tools From: www.drupal.org
  25. 25. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 Fusion of KOS with Terminology: Multilingual Knowledge System Coreon
  26. 26. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 For more information on ontologies, knowledge organization systems, on further reading, related tools, etc Michael Wetzel Coreon GmbH Berlin michael@coreon.com
  27. 27. @wetzelmichael International Terminology Summer School - Cologne, 10 - 14 July 2017 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! Any questions? Feedback and general impressions!

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