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Industry 4.0 and Internet of Things is all about connecting systems. Hardware is plugged together by relying on standardized layers and networks. But what we really want is that these devices speak to each other; they interoperate. This requires a mutual understanding of what they actually do, like “I measure temperature. What do you measure?” The answer is in the semantic of the devices’ metadata: often textual, multilingual.
Without such semantic interoperability devices will not be able to speak to each. If human intervention is necessary the IoT with billions of devices will remain a nice buzzword for a great vision.