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frontiers in remediation    Innovation. Balance. Experience.Imagine the result
Innovation. Balance. Experience.For ARCADIS, everything begins with a passion to help clients achieve success. We focus on...
frontiers in remediation                                                                                                  ...
frontiers in remediation                                                                                                  ...
frontiers in remediation                                                                                                  ...
frontiers in remediation                                                                                                  ...
frontiers in remediation                                                                                                  ...
frontiers in remediation                                                                                                  ...
frontiers in remediation                           Frontiers in Remediation:                           Sustainability by D...
11frontiers in remediation                                                                                                ...
22frontiers in remediation                                                                                                ...
33frontiers in remediation                                                                                                ...
frontiers in remediation                           Frontiers in Geochemistry:                           Metals, Radionucli...
44frontiers in remediation                                                                                                ...
55frontiers in remediation                                                                                                ...
66frontiers in remediation                                                                                                ...
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads
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Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads

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Frontiers In Remediation Innovation Balance Experience E Book Spreads

  1. 1. frontiers in remediation Innovation. Balance. Experience.Imagine the result
  2. 2. Innovation. Balance. Experience.For ARCADIS, everything begins with a passion to help clients achieve success. We focus onunderstanding our clients’ most complex environmental challenges, and we generate value bycreating balanced solutions. It’s how we do business.What sets us apart are our core principles of technical innovation and excellence in projectdelivery. Our scientists and engineers are pushing frontiers in remediation by improving theapplication of existing technologies or by developing next generation technologies.What results can you expect? The best possible! While everyone is talking about closing sites andturning liabilities into assets, we’re achieving it. We’ve got the track record to prove we translateour global experience into execution.Imagine the result.
  3. 3. frontiers in remediation frontiers in remediationARCADIS U.S., Inc.630 Plaza Drive, Suite 100Highlands Ranch, CO 80129tel 720 344 3500 frontiers in Suthan S. Suthersan, PhD, PE suthan.suthersan@arcadis-us.com Rula A. Deeb, PhD, BCEEM rula.deeb@arcadis-us.com Kurt A. Beil, PE kurt.beil@arcadis-us.com Denice Nelson, PhD, PE denice.nelson@arcadis-us.com remediation Eric M. Nichols, PE eric.nichols@arcadis-us.com Carol S. Mowder, PE carol.mowder@arcadis-us.com Craig E. Divine, PhD, PG craig.divine@arcadis-us.com Scott T. Potter, PhD, PE Innovation. Balance. Experience. scott.potter@arcadis-us.com Elisabeth L. Hawley, PE elisabeth.hawley@arcadis-us.com Karen Hohe Suchomel, PG karen.hohesuchomel@arcadis-us.com www.arcadis-us.com© 2012 ARCADIS U.S., Inc. All Rights ReservedWhile we believe the information presented in this document to be accurate, the information is not intended as legal or otheradvice but, rather, as general information not specific to a particular project. You should always formally engage the services of alawyer or professional consultant of your choosing before taking action on matters referenced in this document.Editing and editorial services: Chrissy Murphy (ARCADIS U.S., Inc., Newtown, PA), Rosario Varella (ARCADIS U.S., Inc., Emeryville, CA)Design and layout: Andrew Lewandowski (ARCADIS U.S., Inc., Syracuse, NY)Printing by: Eastwood Litho, Inc., 4020 New Court Avenue, Syracuse, NY 13206 Photo ©iStockphoto LPPage 4 Innovation. Balance. Experience. Page 1
  4. 4. frontiers in remediation frontiers in remediationCase Studies Case Case Project Name COCs Technology Location Project Name COCs Technology Location Study # Study # Frontiers in Remediation: Sustainability by Design Pioneering Solutions: Large Diffuse Plumes Artesian Treatment Vessels: A Sustainable In Situ Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination, 1 TCE Artesian Treatment Vessels Georgia Closure of a 3-Mile TCE Plume at Reese Air Force Remediation System 11 TCE Directed Groundwater Recirculation, Texas Base Monitored Natural Attenuation Sustainable Remediation: The Johnson Space 2 PCE, TCE, DCE, VC Mulch Biowall Barrier Texas Center Mulch Biowall Project Leveraging Next Generation Characterization 12 TCE Bioremediation California Techniques to Support Flux Focused Remediation NAPL (crude oil, diesel, Hydrocarbon Recovery, Sustainable 3 Sustainable Approach to Product Recovery Confidential gasoline) Remediation Use of Phytoremediation to Correct Groundwater Phytoremediation, Permeable Reactive 13 Hydraulics Upgradient of a Permeable Reactive TCE Missouri Frontiers in Geochemistry: Metals, Radionuclides and Inorganics Barrier Barrier In Situ Stabilization/Solidication, 4 Cost Effective Closure of a Former Chemical Cadmium, Lead, Zinc Wetlands Construction, Soil Capping, Virginia Pioneering Solutions: NAPL Management Manufacturing Facility Monitored Natural Attenuation Soil Vapor Extraction, Excavation, Remediation of an 8-Acre Residual LNAPL Source LNAPL (gasoline, diesel), Groundwater Extraction and In Situ Remediation of a Mixed Uranium and PCE 14 California 5 Uranium, PCE Anaerobic Bioremediation Southeastern US and an MTBE/TBA Plume BTEX, MTBE, TBA Treatment, Hydraulic Control, Plume Dewatering Remedy Optimization to Achieve Site Closure at a 6 Uranium, Metals Thermal (ERH-VR) Confidential In Situ Soil Mixing with Zero Valent Large Former Mill Tailing Site In Situ Soil Mixing and Enhanced Reductive Iron and Clay, Enhanced Reductive 15 VOCs, DNAPL Missouri Groundwater and Soil Remediation for Dechlorination for DNAPL Source Treatment Dechlorination, Monitored Natural 7 Chromium Bioremediation, Excavation Western US Hexavalent Chromium Attenuation Innovative and Sustainable Treatment of Metals Managing NAPL Seepage at the Pine Street 8 Metals Water Treatment Confidential 16 Coal Tar, PAHs, NAPL Reactive Cap Construction Vermont Impacted Water in a Mine Pit Lake Canal Superfund Site Biological Treatment of Mine Water Containing Ammonium, Nitrate, Excavation, Thermal Remediation 9 Biological Water Treatment South America Thermal Remediation of DNAPL at a Former PAHs, Chromium, Xylene, Nitrogen Compounds, Sulfate and Metals Sulfate, Trace Metals 17 and Vapor Recovery, Engineered Cap Illinois Bicycle Manufacturing Site Vinyl Chloride, TCE In-Situ Bioremediation of Nitrate, Ammonia and Installation Nitrate, Ammonia, 10 Chlorinated Solvents at a Fertilizer Manufacturing Bioremediation Georgia CVOCs FacilityPage 2 Innovation. Balance. Experience. Page 3
  5. 5. frontiers in remediation frontiers in remediationCase Studies Case Case Project Name COCs Technology Location Project Name COCs Technology Location Study # Study # Pioneering Solutions: Vapor Intrusion 27 Stabilization and Solidification to Address Coal Coal Tar In Situ Stabilization/Solidification Minnesota Tar Contamination In Situ Reactive Zone, Air Sparge/Soil Vapor Intrusion Assessment and Mitigation at a Vapor Extraction, Enhanced Reductive Hydraulic Containment (sheet pile wall, 18 PCE, TCE Indiana Minimizing Landfill Impacts on an Adjacent Former Industrial Facility Dechlorination, In Situ Chemical 28 Metals interceptor trench), pH Adjustment, Michigan Wetland Oxidation Filtration Base Activated Persulfate Oxidation of VOCs to CVOCs, BTEX, MIBK, In Situ Chemical Oxidation, Excavation Soil Vapor Extraction, Multi-Phase 19 Michigan VOCs, Ketones, Aromatic Extraction, Groundwater Extraction, Meet Indoor Air Inhalation Criteria MEK and Stabilization 29 Active Bulk Terminal Remediation Minnesota Hydrocarbons Treatment, Amendment and Remediation of a Fractured Bedrock Aquifer Reinjection 20 TCA, DCE, TCE Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination Colorado Impacted by Chlorinated Solvents Development of Site-Specific Target Soil Pesticides USEPA Applied Research Program: Assessing 30 Concentrations to Reduce Remediation Costs at (hexachlorocyclohexane, Excavation Florida PCE, TCE, Chloroform, Research Program, Vapor Intrusion 21 Vapor Intrusion Temporal and Spatial Variability North Carolina a Pesticides Contaminated Site toxaphene, chlordane) Radon Assessment using Radon and Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs, SVOCs, Arsenic, Pioneering Solutions: Emerging Contaminants Excavation, Landfarming, Soil Vapor 31 Remediation of a Former Natural Gas Plant Site Lead, Mercury, PCBs, Kansas Extraction, Biosparge, Air Sparge Enhanced Sulfolane Removal using a Biological Produced Water/Brine 22 Sulfolane Biological GAC California Granular Activated Carbon Treatment System 32 Produced Water Brine Plume Control Produced Water Groundwater Extraction Kansas In Situ Chemical Oxidation to Remediate Fostering Innovation: Technology Development and Demonstration 23 an Industrial Site Contaminated with Tetrahydrofuran ISCO The Netherlands Tetrahydrofuran Tailored Granular Activated Carbon Treatment of 33 Perchlorate, TCE Tailored Granular Activated Carbon California Perchlorate in Drinking Water Pioneering Solutions: Site Closure and Other Strategies Comparison of Advanced Geophysical Sensors for Technology Development and Thermal Remediation of a Former Dry Cleaner 34 Buried Munitions US 24 PCE, CVOCs Thermal (ERH) Illinois Classifying Buried Munitions Demonstration Site Advanced Ground Water Treatment Research Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Landfarming, Monitored Natural 35 Program for Hexavalent Chromium Removal from Chromium Water Treatment Research Program California 25 Former Tank Battery Remediation Kansas Produced Water/Brine Attenuation Drinking Water In Situ Chemical Oxidation and Stabilization via Excavation, In Situ Chemical Oxidation, Alternative Endpoints for Groundwater 26 BTEX Georgia 36 Various Various US Soil Mixing for BTEX Remediation Stabilization Remediation at Highly Complex SitesPage 4 Innovation. Balance. Experience. Page 5
  6. 6. frontiers in remediation frontiers in remediationCase Studies Case Case Project Name COCs Technology Location Project Name COCs Technology Location Study # Study # Industry Leadership: Performance Based Remediation Frontiers in Remediation: Global Expertise Petroleum Hydrocarbons, In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Carbon Disulfide 37 Remediation of a Retail Portfolio of 775 Sites Various US 45 Carbon Disulfide In Situ Chemical Oxidation United Kingdom Fuel Oxygenates, LNAPL Treatment CVOCs, Petroleum Cadmium, Arsenic, Lead, Accelerating the CERCLA Process at 30 Areas of Xiawangang Canal Sediment Remediation Multiple Sediment Remediation 38 Hydrocarbons, Lead, Various Missouri 46 Mercury, Copper, PCBs, China Concern at Lake City Army Ammunition Plant Project Technologies Explosives Pesticides, PAHs Soil Vapor Extraction, Enhanced Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination of a High Performance Based Remediation of a Site 47 CVOCs Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination Belguim 39 PCE Reductive Dechlorination, In Well Massachusetts Concentration CVOC Plume Impacted by PCE Sparging Bioprecipitation of Hexavalent Chromium and Chromium, VOCs, SVOCs, 48 Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination of TCE in Bioremediation France Plume Management Zone for Soil and Institutional Controls, Plume Petroleum Hydrocarbons 40 Methylnaphthalene, Texas Groundwater Groundwater Semi-Volatile Exceedances Management Zone Benzo(a)pyrene, TPH Petroleum Hydrocarbons, 49 Oil and Gas Well Site Reclamation Program Various Canada Mass Flux Focused Remediation of a Chlorinated PCB, Arsenic, Mercury 41 CVOCs Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination California Solvents Plume Safety First: Integrating Health and Safety into Remediation Projects Building World Class Teams: Academic Partnerships Health and Safety: Time Critical Removal Action 50 Various Time Critical Removal Action California Evaluating NAPL Source Longevity at Thermally Enhanced Extraction, in Arroyo with 30 Degree Slope 42 NAPL Arizona Contaminated Sites Innovative Tools/Models Development of USEPA Conceptual Model Vapor Intrusion Pathway 3-D 43 VOCs US Scenarios for the Vapor Intrusion Pathway Modeling Field Evaluation of Point Velocity Probes (PVPs), a 44 Arsenic, Lead Point Volicity Probes Carolina New Groundwater Characterization TechnologyPage 6 Innovation. Balance. Experience. Page 7
  7. 7. frontiers in remediation frontiers in remediationfrontiers in Frontiers in Remediation: Sustainability by Design Recognizing that every project is directly linked to the global environment, we continually invest in technologies, processes, products, and services that create and remediation maintain sustainability. We carefully consider the environmental impacts of site cleanup activities to maximize net benefits by keeping in mind the triple bottom line. To better support sustainable remedial decision making, we developed a quantitative tool to evaluate individual metrics, such as energy, water, greenhouse gas, and carbon as a whole, and aggregate this diverse set of relevant parameters into a single unit of measurement. This proprietary tool, called The BalancE3™ Innovation. Balance. Experience. Tool, can support corporate goals in achieving social equity and economic and environmental sustainability. To learn more about how we’ve integrated sustainability in our remediation projects, see Case Studies 1 through 3. Frontiers in Geochemistry: Metals, Radionuclides and InorganicsAt ARCADIS, our mission is to improve quality of life by providing sustainable solutions The multi-national community of talented scientists and engineers that staffthat enhance the built and natural environment. This enables us to produce exceptional our geochemistry practice provide unique expertise at sites impacted withvalue for our clients, employees, shareholders, and society. To fulfill our mission, we strive metals, radionuclides, and non-metal inorganics. Based on advanced geochemicalto reach the delicate balance between the creative and the functional, the innovative and characterization methods and data evaluation techniques, our geochemiststhe proven, ecology and economy, and between present needs and future legacy. have the ability to build accurate conceptual site models that support remedial decision making. By employing a comprehensive understanding of biogeochemicalWe envision a better world – then we engineer it. At ARCADIS, we are committed to leaving the systems, we have developed effective and sustainable solutions to our clients’environment and the places we touch better than we found them. With this vision, we approach our most challenging problems as demonstrated in Case Studies 4 through 10.work differently from other consultants – we’re the singular firm with the focus, local capabilities and Pioneering Solutionsglobal expertise to meet our clients’ current and future needs. Ranked a top provider of environmental Our technical experts change industry paradigms, patent innovative technologies, andservices by ENR, and with a track record of successful world-class projects, we have unparalleled regularly author state-of-the-science articles, presentations, and books on cost-effectiveresources, experience, and technical knowledge to follow through with our commitments. solutions to today’s toughest site investigation and remediation challenges. The following are a few technical challenges that necessitated us to pioneer creative remedial solutions:This booklet presents 50 Case Studies that were selected to illustrate our breadth of global remediationexperience as well as our capacity for remedial success through the effective design and deployment • Large Diffuse Plumes (Case Studies #11 through 13)of ex situ technologies, in situ technologies, or combinations thereof, to address a wide range of • NAPL Management (Case Studies #14 through 17)soil and groundwater contaminants. These Case Studies are organized in this booklet around key • Vapor Intrusion (Case Studies #18 through 21)technical differentiators that best demonstrate ARCADIS’ thought leadership in the industry. • Emerging Contaminants (Case Studies #22 through 23) • Site Closure and Other Strategies (Case Studies #24 through 32)Page 8 Innovation. Balance. Experience. Page 9
  8. 8. frontiers in remediation frontiers in remediationFostering Innovation: Technology Development and Demonstration technical collaboration, training, and quality assurance — all embedded within aAt ARCADIS, innovation is a cornerstone of our culture. We promote an culture of continuous improvement and innovation. In our quest to build world classentrepreneurial spirit within our technical communities, and emphasize the teams to better serve our clients, we often partner with researchers at universities if weimportance of identifying and demonstrating new and innovative technologies that lack internal resources and associated technical knowledge. Academic partnershipscan support more effective, efficient, and sustainable restoration of environmentally provide unique training opportunities for our employees on leading edge technicalimpacted sites. We are currently working on new technologies for metals remediation, advancements and next generation technologies (see Case Studies #42 through 44).perchlorate and chromium removal from drinking water, geophysical sensors forclassifying buried munitions, and more (see Case Studies #33 through 36). When Frontiers in Remediation: Global Expertisewe implement a new or innovative approach, we dedicate our own resources to Today, ARCADIS maintains its dedication to innovation and excellence as we continuedevelop a deep understanding of the fundamental principles that control process and to build our global footprint to more effectively serve our clients. With 16,000 employeesperformance, and bring our experience in other areas to bear on implementation. and more than $2.7 billion in revenues, ARCADIS has an extensive international network supported by strong local market positions. For examples of how we leverage ourIndustry Leadership: Performance Based Remediation global expertise to meet client needs internationally, see Case Studies #45 through 49.ARCADIS developed the concept of guaranteed fixed-price remediation decades agoand grew it into a highly successful business model. Today, many commercial and Safety First: Integrating Health and Safety into Remediation Projectsfederal clients are awarding environmental restoration projects using performance Providing a healthy and safe work environment is an integral part of our values and abased remediation contracts. The result is not only cost savings to clients, but also key element of the solutions we provide for our clients. We believe that health and safetyfreedom from future remediation responsibilities and regulatory uncertainty. ARCADIS on the job is a major concern of our clients, who demand robust programs involvingis an industry leader in the successful execution of performance based remediation for continuous improvement, strong leadership, and employee engagement. We addressthe Department of Defense, with over 30 projects either completed or in progress at these concerns through our risk and behavior-based health and safety managementa value exceeding $430 million. We have also demonstrated successes for commercial program. We proactively identify and prioritize risks in our work, and develop robustclients both in terms of our ability to utilize innovative remedial strategies to drive approaches to eliminate or minimize these risks. As a result, work-related injurysites to closure, and in working with regulatory agencies to negotiate optimum and illness rates are currently below industry benchmarks (see Case Study #50).endpoints and keep remedial progress on schedule (see Case Studies #37 through 41).Building World Class Teams: Academic PartnershipsAt ARCADIS, we believe that knowledge drives successful outcomes. We break the Please contact us if you have any questions, require additional information, or if we can be of assistance to you.barriers erected through the “knowledge is power” mindset and reward staff forknowledge sharing. Our environmental professionals from different business units Suthan S. Suthersan, PhD, PE Rula A. Deeb, PhD, BCEEMand global offices are encouraged to collaborate and push boundaries to deliver Chief Technical Officer Technical Director - Outreachoptimal client-focused solutions. Our unique and global Technical Knowledge andInnovation (TKI) program provides a formal framework for knowledge exchange, suthan.suthersan@arcadis-us.com rula.deeb@arcadis-us.comPage 10 Innovation. Balance. Experience. Page 11
  9. 9. frontiers in remediation Frontiers in Remediation: Sustainability by DesignPage 12 Innovation. Balance. Experience. Page 13
  10. 10. 11frontiers in remediation frontiers in remediation Project GoalArtesian Treatment Vessels: A Sustainable Eliminate the discharge of TCE-contaminated Artesian Treatment Vessels: A SustainableIn Situ Remediation System groundwater to a tributary while In Situ Remediation SystemAugusta, Georgia minimizing impacts to the native forest Augusta, Georgia habitat in a remote area of Fort Gordon.Client ARCADIS StrategyFort Gordon Military Reservation Exploit naturally occurring artesian conditions at the site to design a totally passive (zero energyScope of Services input) remedy which can meet cleanup objectives.Guaranteed Fixed Price Performance-based Remediation, InnovativeSustainable Remedy Development, Sustainability Evaluation Project Accomplishments TREATMENT ARCADIS designed and implemented an elegant WELL DEEP WATER LEVELSPerformance Period passive and sustainable remedy that leveraged2009 through Present natural site hydrogeologic conditions and fully met remedial objectives. The final remedy designContaminants minimized disturbance to the natural habitat,TCE requires no moving mechanical parts, consumes no external power source or water, and has no direct air emissions or operational noise. All stakeholders collaborated through the remedy Conceptual geological cross section showing location and selection and design thereby maximizing support vertical interval of artesian extraction wells. Twenty total wells Conceptual schematic presenting extraction well and ATV configuration (at for the implementation of the final remedy. and five total ATVs provide plume capture along the unnamed left). Groundwater extraction is facilitated via differential pressure differences tributary floodplain. Red dashed line represents the water and funneled to a vertical liquid phase carbon vessel prior to discharge elevations along plume flow path in deeper monitoring wellsThe Challenge The ApproachHistorical TCE impacts in groundwater at the Fort Gordon Military ARCADIS screened remediation options for their overall efficacy carbon. The vessels are installed below the land surface to minimize The ResultReservation resulted from waste solvent disposed in a drain that in eliminating plume migration to the unnamed tributary and the habitat impacts. The natural ambient hydraulic gradient is sufficient A detailed remedy evaluation, a highly accurate understanding ofdischarged to a sump and clay tile leach field. The TCE plume anticipated impacts of construction activities to the native forest to convey the impacted water through the vessels where it undergoes the site hydrogeology, and a life cycle approach to remedy designmigrated under ambient groundwater conditions from the original habitat and the ecological receptors that reside in the area. A carbon full treatment. The treated water is then discharged to a gravel apron guided the ARCADIS team to develop an innovative and simplesource area to approximately 1800 feet downhill toward a receiving footprint analysis for each remediation alternative was completed in the flood plain. This approach requires no energy input, pumps strategy that minimized resource consumption and reducedtributary. The shallow impacted soils in the source area were using the ARCADIS BalancE3® Tool to compare the overall potential or other mechanical equipment, and results in no consumptive use ecological impacts. The reliance on natural hydraulic gradientsremoved by excavation as an Interim Measure in 2005. However, benefits of the selected remedy. The ARCADIS BalancE3® Tool of water. The operation and monitoring activities can be conducted and gravity resulted in a sustainable remediation system and asignificant groundwater impacts remained after this action. provides a quantitative means to determine environmental, social, during regularly scheduled groundwater monitoring events, and minimal impact on the environment while providing protection and economic impacts associated with remediation decisions carbon change-outs are expected only once every 5 to 7 years.The water table aquifer is 100 to 200 feet thick, has low to medium to a sensitive riparian zone. Our innovative remedy resulted in that will be made throughout the lifecycle of a remedy.permeability, and yields very low volumes of water due to its high savings of approximately 50 metric tons of CO2 equivalent overclay content. At the base of the hill, artesian groundwater conditions The selected remedy was a novel artesian treatment vessel that the 30-year remedial lifecycle. Throughout the design process,exist that result in upward plume transport toward the stream and functions effectively in these challenging site conditions. The stakeholders were engaged to ensure that the final design met theirsurrounding flood zone. An active remediation approach was initially vessels require zero energy input. ARCADIS installed a network expectations. This collaboration gained both stakeholder supportrequested by the regulatory agencies to address the remaining of passive artesian “extraction” wells along the flood plain of the and maximized acceptance the final remedy implementation.groundwater impacts and to ensure long-term protectiveness of receptor stream. The wells are screened in the core of the plumethe tributary. However, the remoteness of the site, combined with a to fully capture impacted groundwater. Upon surfacing undermature native forest overlying the groundwater plume and sensitive natural artesian conditions, the impacted groundwater is directedecological receptors presented significant access limitations. to customized vessels that contain liquid phase granular activatedPage 14 Innovation. Balance. Experience. Page 15
  11. 11. 22frontiers in remediation frontiers in remediation Project GoalSustainable Remediation: The Johnson Space Incorporate sustainable remediation practices as Sustainable Remediation: The Johnson SpaceCenter Mulch Biowall Project requested by the Client into a response action to Center Mulch Biowall ProjectHouston, Texas address chlorinated solvents in groundwater. Houston, Texas ARCADIS StrategyClient Evaluate multiple sustainable remedialNational Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) alternatives, including the use of mulch from trees downed by Hurricane Ike at the site in a Proposed location of parallel mulch biowalls at JSC (in orange)Scope of Services subsurface biowall to avoid landfill disposal of and approximate extent of the groundwater plume (in yellow).Site Investigation, Treatability Testing, Remedy Selection, Sustainability Evaluations waste. Identify opportunities to maximize the environmental outcome by incorporating bestPerformance Period practices for sustainable remediation and by using2006 through Present sustainability tools to evaluate the design andContaminants operation of different remedial alternatives.PCE, TCE, DCE, VC Project Accomplishments Bench scale testing indicated that site conditions are conducive to enhanced chlorinated solvent degradation stimulated by the addition of a mulch substrate. The proposed remedy, which Downed trees at JSC following Hurricane Ike incorporates a subsurface mulch biowall as a permeable reactive barrier for chlorinated solvents in groundwater, was approved by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and is currently scheduled for implementation.The Challenge The Approach To further minimize the environmental footprint and to identify The ResultIn 2008, Hurricane Ike caused extensive damage to the Gulf Results from baseline groundwater sampling and a bench scale test opportunities to enhance the environmental outcome, a quantitative The plan for the JSC mulch biowall PRB was presented toCoast region including the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) indicated that site conditions are conducive to chlorinated solvent sustainability assessment was performed for the remedial the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality in a formalcampus in Houston, Texas. In an effort to avoid landfill disposal degradation stimulated by the addition of a mulch biowall. To fulfill alternatives using the BalancE3® Tool. This comprehensive analysis Remedial Action Plan in 2011 and will be implemented in 2012.of waste and debris, many of the trees downed by the hurricane NASA’s interest in incorporating sustainable practices during site included five metrics energy consumption, air emissions, waterwere chipped into 1,500 cubic yards of mulch and retained for remediation, the ARCADIS team integrated sustainable remediation requirements, material consumption/waste generation, and landfuture use at the site. ARCADIS developed a strategy that uses practices into the design and operation of five proposed remedial impacts. Metric quantification included onsite activities as well asthe mulch in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for the biological alternatives. The remedial alternatives included four biowall transportation associated with the movement of materials to andtreatment of chlorinated solvents in groundwater at the site. The designs and monitored natural attenuation, and incorporated best from the site. The selected alternative is a mulch biowall PRB withuse of downed trees and debris from Hurricane Ike as mulch practices such as the use of onsite renewable biological resources installed horizontal piping for injectable substrate delivery. Thematerial for the biowall has increased sustainability for the as reactive media (the onsite mulch), re-use of extracted water addition of installed piping allows for the periodic renewal ofgroundwater remediation at the site, reduced waste generation in a biowall alternative with recirculation of groundwater, use the carbon content of the wall, eliminating the need for biowallfrom the site, and lowered restoration costs for the Client. of onsite injectable substrate, and reliance on local vendors. replacement once the mulch carbon content is exhausted, thereby significantly decreasing overall environmental impacts.Page 16 Innovation. Balance. Experience. Page 17
  12. 12. 33frontiers in remediation frontiers in remediation Project Goal Recover non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) fromSustainable Approach to Product Recovery groundwater at a RCRA site and fully incorporating Sustainable Approach to Product RecoverySt. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands sustainable practices into the selected remedy. St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands ARCADIS StrategyClient Use sustainable design principles to developConfidential Client a recovery system for free product with minimal waste generation, air emissions,Scope of Services and grid electricity consumption.Hydrocarbon Recovery, Sustainable Remediation Project AccomplishmentsPerformance Period To date, around 367,000 gallons of free product1997 through Present have been reclaimed, which amounts to 30% of total estimated releases. Recovered petroleumContaminants product was transferred to an adjacent oil refinery,NAPL (crude oil, diesel, gasoline) generating revenue and avoiding transportation- related air emissions and waste. The petroleum recovery system uses renewable energy instead of grid electricity, thus further reducing air emissions.The Challenge The Approach despite highly corrosive local conditions. Phase II was installed in The ResultHistorical operation of the hydrocarbon recovery facility and an Multiple renewable energy technologies and resources were integrated summer 2004 and consists of six solar panels and six downhole To date, approximately 367,000 gallons of free product have beenadjacent large petroleum refinery impacted groundwater with over time to develop an adaptive design that met the increasing submersible electric pumps powered exclusively by solar panels. The reclaimed. This accounts for approximately 30% of the total estimatedapproximately 2 million gallons of free product. An environmental energy demands of the recovery system. Phase I, installed in 2001, Phase III system expansion occurred in summer 2007 with the goal release volume. The transfer of recovered petroleum product to anforensics analysis and detailed assessment of existing site data consisted of six fluid pneumatic pumps powered by four windmills. of increasing hydrocarbon production by installing additional power adjacent oil refinery for re-use as a feed stock avoided offsite transferrevealed the distribution of crude oil, diesel, and gasoline within A fiberglass gathering system was constructed to collect and convey sources and by adding additional recovery wells screened over a and disposal, thereby reducing air emissions and waste generation.several distinct and commingled areas. Additional site investigation free product and groundwater to the adjacent oil refinery which larger vertical distance to enhance oil recovery. Four additional solar The sale of the recovered product also helped reduce overall projectefforts led to the identification of onsite sources. Once the purchased the recovered oil. The refinery had an existing wastewater panels and three electric wind turbines were installed to power the costs. This project was highlighted on the cover of USEPA’s publicationimpacted areas were fully delineated, a sustainable approach to treatment system which was used to treat the groundwater, thereby new downhole submersible pumps and floating oil skimmers. “Green Remediation: Incorporating Sustainable Environmentalpetroleum product recovery was developed and implemented. eliminating the need to construct and operate a new system. These Practices into Remediation of Contaminated Sites” dated April 2008. cost savings and the re-use of existing infrastructure added additional sustainable elements to the project. The treatment system has performed consistently well, with minor down time for maintenancePage 18 Innovation. Balance. Experience. Page 19
  13. 13. frontiers in remediation Frontiers in Geochemistry: Metals, Radionuclides and InorganicsPage 20 Innovation. Balance. Experience. Page 21
  14. 14. 44frontiers in remediation frontiers in remediation Project GoalCost-Effective Closure of a Former Cost-effective closure of a former chemical Cost-Effective Closure of a FormerChemical Manufacturing Facility manufacturing facility with metals-impacted Chemical Manufacturing FacilityPortsmouth, Virginia soils and lagoon sludges, and elevated levels Portsmouth, Virginia of zinc in groundwater and surface water.Client ARCADIS StrategyConfidential Chemical Client Construction of an asphalt cap to limit direct contact with metals-impacted soils. In Situ stabilization/Scope of Services solidification of metals-impacted lagoon sludges andSite Investigation, Risk Assessment, Groundwater Modeling, Soil Remediation, construction of a passive surface water treatmentGroundwater Remediation, Regulatory Negotiation, Surface Water Treatment system on top of the stabilized area. Monitored natural attenuation for metals in groundwater.Performance Period1999 through 2009 Project Accomplishments Remediation activities were successfullyContaminants conducted in cooperation with the currentCadium, Lead, Zinc property owner and a Consent Order was closed at the completion of the project. A total of 35,000 cubic yards of sludge present in the lagoons was stabilizedThe Challenge The Approach The ResultHistorical activities associated with metal smelting, metal The strategy for site closure included several elements First, ARCADIS Five wastewater treatment basins and one sludge drying bed existedconcentration operations, and zinc sulfate manufacturing placed an asphalt cap over a large area with contaminated soils at the facility. ARCADIS was successful in classifying four of theresulted in the presence of cadmium, lead, and zinc in site to eliminate direct contact with the metals-bearing soils, reduce lagoons with metals-bearing sludges as non-hazardous through asoils and lagoon sludges at concentrations that rendered the leaching of metals from soil to groundwater by limiting infiltration, statistical evaluation of analytical data. All the lagoons at the facilitymaterials hazardous. Elevated concentrations of zinc were also and povide additional parking for the facility. Second, ARCADIS were stabilized to achieve certain bearing strengths and to allow thepresent in groundwater as well as surface water discharging performed a risk assessment and developed a groundwater fate and construction of stormwater treatment cells on the footprint of thethrough site outfalls. Due to multiple property transactions over transport model to gain acceptance of monitored natural attenuation former lagoon area. Following stabilization and grading, a man-madetime, environmental liabilities and obligations were distributed as a remedy for the zinc groundwater plume. Third, following a wetlands system consisting of a stormwater pond, two vertical flowamong multiple former owners and remedial activities had to be decision to stabilize all lagoons to achieve certain bearing strengths cells, and a polishing pond was constructed on top of the stabilizedcompleted with the cooperation of the current property owner. and allow the construction of stormwater treatment cells on the area for surface water treatment. Impacted stormwater was pumped footprint of the former lagoon area, a total of 35,000 cubic yards of to the stormwater pond, distributed to the vertical flow cells for sludge was stabilized in place using 10% Portland Cement (by weight). treatment, released to the polishing pond, and then discharged to the Elizabeth River. The Consent Order resulting from periodic NPDES exceedances of zinc was closed at the completion of this project.Page 22 Innovation. Balance. Experience. Page 23
  15. 15. 55frontiers in remediation frontiers in remediation Project Goal Remediation of chlorinated solvents (PCE) andIn Situ Remediation of a Mixed Uranium and PCE Plume radionuclides (uranium) in groundwater utilizing In Situ Remediation of a Mixed Uranium and PCE PlumeSoutheastern United States enhanced in situ anaerobic reductive dechlorination/ Southeastern United States precipitation to treat the plume area and prevent the off‑site migration of impacted groundwater.Client The ResultConfidential Client ARCADIS Strategy Design and implement a remedy to simultaneously Based on the results of the pilot test, theScope of Services treat both PCE and uranium. ARCADIS’ approach implementation of the full scale remedy was initiatedPilot Testing, Full Scale Remedy Implementation, Regulatory consisted of a phased implementation of an in June 2002. The system consisted of up to 24Negotiation, Confirmation Sampling anaerobic In situ Reactive Zone (IRZ) to stimulate injection wells for application of reagent mixtures, the microbial precipitation of uranium and the and up to 16 monitor for performance monitoring.Performance Period Performance monitoring began in December reductive dechlorination of PCE through theJanuary 2000 through Present 2002 and continued through 2011. Performance delivery of a carbon susbstrate followed by the addition of ferrous sulfate to promote the formation monitoring of the full‑scale demonstrationContaminants has confirmed the continued destruction andUranium, PCE of an insoluble mineral form of uraninite. precipitation of chlorinated volatile organic Project Accomplishments compounds (CVOCs) and uranium, respectively. The PCE and uranium concentrations in the treatment expanded area of reagent injection has resulted in areas have been reduced by approximately 90% to a substantially smaller impacted area (defined as levels below the MCLs for the target constituents having concentrations greater than the maximum of concern. The ARCADIS team successfully contaminant level [MCL]). Uranium stabilization implemented an injection-based strategy to promote via ferrous sulfate was initiated in 2007 with a reductive dechlorination of PCE while at the same pilot test and then expanded in subsequent years. time reductively precipitating uranium. The final The addition of ferrous sulfate for stabilization polishing element of the remedy incorporated has continued through 2011 to prevent the an engineered in situ chemical stabilization step The Approach resolubilization of uranium as oxygen reenters theThe Challenge to mitigate potential uranium dissolution after ARCADIS developed a remedial aquifer (i.e., oxygen reacts with the excess iron).This facility has been historically operated for the processing of uranium. completion of the biological treatment phase. strategy involving the phased As of 2011, full scale remedial injections have addedARCADIS was contracted to design and implement an anaerobic In situ implementation of an in situ a total of 76,834 pounds of organic carbon and 42,363Reactive Zone (IRZ) to expedite the remediation of uranium-impacted anaerobic IRZ® technology to pounds of ferrous sulfate. The impacted area forgroundwater and to significantly reduce the time required to achieve reductively dechlorinate TCE uranium has been reduced by approximately 90%groundwater standards. ARCADIS was also contracted to handle regulatory tetrachloroethene and to precipitate of the baseline impacted area to below the MCL.negotiations to achieve approval and acceptance of the remedial approach. uranium. The first phase consisted Initiation of closure monitoring in approximately of a pilot demonstration and 0.4 acres of the treatment zone took place inThe original size of the uranium plume at this site was just under 0.75 acre was followed by a full scale 2009 after monitoring results showed sustainedwith concentrations ranging from 30 to 2,700 micrograms per liter. The Microbial precipitation of uranium implementation. Monthly injections CVOC and uranium concentrations below MCLs.uranium plume is located in an unconsolidated alluvium aquifer comprised of organic carbon were performed To date, CVOCs and uranium concentrationsof silt, clay, clayey sand, gravel, and cobbles. In addition, a primary source to establish and maintain the reactive zone. Under reducing conditions, soluble uranium have been observed to rebound. Currently, theof uranium contamination is located underneath one of the site buildings, a is converted to the insoluble mineral form uraninite. Injections were augmented with closure monitoring area is being expanded tocomplication that ARCADIS was able to account for in the remedy design. ferrous sulfate to promote the formation of reduced ferrous sulfide minerals which coat include additional areas where contaminant aquifer grains to physically encapsulate the uraninite and maintain reducing conditions concentrations have decreased below MCLs. for significant time periods (thereby protecting the uraninite from re-oxidation).Page 24 Innovation. Balance. Experience. Page 25
  16. 16. 66frontiers in remediation frontiers in remediation Project GoalRemedy Optimization to Achieve Site Closure at a Advance a former uranium mill site towards Remedy Optimization to Achieve Site Closure at aLarge Former Mill Tailing Site site closure by addressing groundwater Large Former Mill Tailing SiteConfidential Location contaminated with uranium and other metals. Confidential Location ARCADIS StrategyClient Develop a comprehensive program to evaluate andConfidential Mining Client identify sources, perform geochemical analyses to assess soils and groundwater, optimize theScope of Services water treatment system, and develop alternativeSite Investigation and Remediation, Water Treatment, Geochemistry approaches for groundwater restoration.Performance Period Project Accomplishments2010 through Present Through process optimization, ARCADIS is has decreased the projected remedial timeframe andContaminants has improved the performance of the existingUranium, Metals treatment system. We are currently developing an innovative in situ remediation strategy to augment the existing pump and treat system.The Challenge The Approach The ResultHistorical operations at a former mill site affected a groundwater ARCADIS developed a comprehensive program to assist with source Remedial timeframes and limitations of the existing remedialaquifer system with uranium, molybdenum, selenium, and other evaluation, alternative approaches to groundwater restoration, and strategy have been identified and are being addressed throughmetals. The site is in the process of restoring and hydraulically water treatment system optimization. The project utilized key resources process optimization. Our multi-disciplinary team is developingcontaining contaminated groundwater using a pump and treat system. from across ARCADIS to meet Client needs. This included pilot an innovative approach for the in situ treatment of groundwaterWhile pump and treat has been successful at containing the plume, testing of in situ groundwater treatment approaches for uranium and to augment the existing pump and treat system, and whereperformance data do not provide a clear indication about the timeframe metals, and detailed tracer studies of water movement through mill appropriate, replace the system to provide sustained long-needed to meet remedial goals. Alternative restoration approaches are tailings. The groundwater geochemical environment is challenging term treatment capacity. Through close collaboration betweenneeded to aggressively reduce the remedial timeframe and drive the due to high concentrations of dissolved solids. ARCADIS performed scientists and engineers, our team has improved site operations,site to closure. In addition, the current treatment system requires an a detailed evaluation of the geochemistry to develop more efficient enhanced stakeholder communication, and is working to achieveevaluation to improve the performance of ex-situ water treatment. remedial strategies. Malcolm Pirnie, the Water Division of ARCADIS, optimized remedial performance to advance the site to closure. also provided operational assistance with the water treatment plant, and has diagnosed and addressed limitations to treatment processes.Page 26 Innovation. Balance. Experience. Page 27

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