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Ap Wh 3 Abbrid


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Ap Wh 3 Abbrid

  1. 1. New Civilizations in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres <ul><li>2200 BC – 250 BC </li></ul>
  2. 2. New Civilizations <ul><li>Invasions were frequent for ancient river valley civilizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Although destructive to society they often brought an influx of new ideas. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The River Valley Civilizations <ul><li>1750 BC: Egypt was conquered by the Hyksos. </li></ul><ul><li>The Hyksos introduced the chariot and the horse to Egypt. This new technology would allow Egypt to become a great empire under Pharaoh Rameses II. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The River Valley Civilizations <ul><li>1500 BC: The Indus was conquered by the Aryans who would introduce their own changes of ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>1300 BC: The Hittites would invade and conquer Mesopotamia and bring in the knowledge of smelting iron for weapons and tools. </li></ul>
  5. 5. New Civilizations <ul><li>New civilizations arose after the first three river valley civilizations: </li></ul><ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>Nubia </li></ul><ul><li>Celtic Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Central America </li></ul>
  6. 6. New Civilizations <ul><li>The geographic environment affected society and economics in China from 2000 BCE to 221 BCE. </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern China was heavily agricultural: </li></ul><ul><li>North ( Yellow River) grew millet and wheat </li></ul><ul><li>South (Yangtzi River) grew rice </li></ul>
  7. 7. New Civilizations <ul><li>Agriculture required large numbers of people for irrigation projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation projects appear to have been a major cause of organizing civilizations. </li></ul>
  8. 8. New Civilizations <ul><li>Whenever large numbers of people are involved in a project the following impacts occur: </li></ul><ul><li>leadership is required </li></ul><ul><li>cities form </li></ul><ul><li>laws are created </li></ul><ul><li>These are the things that organize society and labor and create civilizations. </li></ul>
  9. 9. New Civilizations <ul><li>Political info: </li></ul><ul><li>Early China was ruled by dynasties. </li></ul><ul><li>Dynasty: power and authority are kept within a family. </li></ul><ul><li>There were two Chinese dynasties during this time period of 2000-221 BC: </li></ul><ul><li>The Shang Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>The Zhou Dynasty (Chou) </li></ul>
  10. 11. New Civilizations <ul><li>The first Chinese dynasty was the Shang Dynasty (2000 BC-1027 BC) which began in the Yellow River Valley and expanded to the Yangtze River. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a theory that there may have been a previous dynasty called the Xsia. It is not yet widely accepted as there are no written records for it. </li></ul><ul><li>The dynasty had a emperor who was considered the intermediary between the gods and the human world. </li></ul><ul><li>This secured his power. </li></ul>
  11. 12. New Civilizations <ul><li>The Shang were the first to unite China into a cohesive kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chinese had little or no direct contact with western Eurasian and African societies at this time. </li></ul><ul><li>However, some contact was carried out by nomads who were intermediaries. Fragments of Shang pottery were found in Mohenjo-Daro. </li></ul>
  12. 13. New Civilizations <ul><li>Chinese farmers had a symbiotic relationship with central Asian nomads. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers provided food, textiles and metal goods to the nomads. </li></ul><ul><li>Nomads provided horses and traded goods from farther west. </li></ul>
  13. 14. New Civilizations <ul><li>Economic Info: </li></ul><ul><li>Much trade and commerce with other regions. Some contact with Mesopotamia . </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Info: </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese were animistic and included male ancestors in their animism. </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestor worship would give influence with the gods. </li></ul><ul><li>Practiced divination using oracle bones, and sacrifice. </li></ul>
  14. 15. New Civilizations <ul><li>Divination: the practice of foreseeing the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Technological Info: </li></ul><ul><li>Vast irrigation systems such as in Egypt or Mesopotamia were not necessary along the Huang He due to large amounts of rain. </li></ul><ul><li>Copper and bronze metallurgy. The Shang and Zhou were masters of bronze. </li></ul><ul><li>Civil engineering: bridges, roads, etc. The building of many large cities with strong, thick walls signify its power. </li></ul><ul><li>Horse and chariot </li></ul><ul><li>Writing: the Chinese characters of today. Chinese consists of 10,000 characters. </li></ul>
  15. 16. New Civilizations <ul><li>The Zhou Dynasty (1027-221 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>Two Zhou periods: </li></ul><ul><li>Western Zhou (1027-800 BC) and </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Zhou (800-221 BC). </li></ul><ul><li>Political Info: </li></ul><ul><li>Defeated the Shang Dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>Many kings in this dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed the concept of the “ Mandate of Heaven .” </li></ul>
  16. 18. New Civilizations <ul><li>Mandate: an instruction or command. </li></ul><ul><li>Mandate of Heaven: the right to rule was given by the gods as long as the king acts morally. </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of the Mandate of Heaven: </li></ul><ul><li>Gave stability to the dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>Gave authority to kings’ decisions </li></ul>
  17. 19. Western Zhou Dynasty Ritual Food Vessel, bronze-ware, 11th century BC - 10th century BC Eastern Zhou Dynasty of China, six bronze graduate bells, dated to the 6th century BC
  18. 20. New Civilizations <ul><li>Technological info: </li></ul><ul><li>Copper and bronze metallurgy. The Zhou were masters of bronze and the dynasty controlled all the bronze production . </li></ul><ul><li>Civil engineering: bridges, roads, etc. The building of many large cities with strong, thick walls signify its power. </li></ul><ul><li>Horse and chariot </li></ul>
  19. 21. New Civilizations <ul><li>Intellectual info: </li></ul><ul><li>Writing: the Chinese characters of today. Chinese consists of 10,000 characters. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike the Egyptians and Mesopotamians , the ancient Chinese did not have an organized religion that played a major part in their society. </li></ul><ul><li>There was no personal deity who intervened in daily life. Instead the concept of tian , or an impersonal power existed that could revoke the Mandate of Heaven. </li></ul>
  20. 22. New Civilizations <ul><li>Due to the Chinese veneration of ancestors, religion was local and family-based rather than organized with a priesthood. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese institutions were more secular than other ancient societies. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chinese developed their culture in isolation and were unique in many aspects. </li></ul>
  21. 23. New Civilizations <ul><li>Developed philosophies that were social, political, and religious: </li></ul><ul><li> Legalism; Confucianism; Daoism (Taoism). </li></ul><ul><li>These philosophies were social and political and sometimes metaphysical. </li></ul><ul><li>They essentially emerged during the Zhou Dynasty period when the political situation was under stress from within . </li></ul>
  22. 24. New Civilizations <ul><li>It is not unusual for societies to develop new philosophies, attitudes, or approaches during times of strife and uncertainty. </li></ul><ul><li>Systems of moral and religious beliefs all seek to create stability in society. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mandate of Heaven charged the emperor ( the “ Son of Heaven ”) to be responsible for political and social balance or the mandate would be withdrawn. </li></ul><ul><li>The desire for stability in society is primary. </li></ul><ul><li>Question for thought: Which way will Iraqi society go? </li></ul>
  23. 25. New Civilizations <ul><li>Legalism: </li></ul><ul><li>Human nature is selfish and wicked and needs strict laws and punishments. </li></ul><ul><li>Created many law codes in China at that time. </li></ul><ul><li>Created a strong bureaucracy in China at that time. </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy: carries out the decisions of the leadership. </li></ul>
  24. 26. New Civilizations <ul><li>Legalism helped create stronger government control in China. </li></ul><ul><li>Confucianism: </li></ul><ul><li>Based on teachings of Chinese philosopher and teacher Confucius (Kung futzi). </li></ul>
  25. 27. New Civilizations <ul><li>Confucianism teachings: </li></ul><ul><li>Human beings are good by nature? </li></ul><ul><li>The universe exists as a hierarchy (rank): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>heavens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>king </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individual </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. New Civilizations <ul><li>There are moral foundations in government and the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of filial devotion : obedience of the child to the parent. </li></ul><ul><li>The family unit was basic to Chinese culture which also venerated ancestors. </li></ul>
  27. 29. New Civilizations <ul><li>Harmony in society is achieved with proper family relationships and state relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Each person will have his and her own role and rank in relation to the family and the state. </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy exists in society as well as the universe. </li></ul>
  28. 30. New Civilizations <ul><li>Confucianism became the dominant political and social philosophy of China. </li></ul><ul><li>It would be referred to many times throughout Chinese history as a stabilizing approach to an unstable society. </li></ul>