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Knowledge Management in the Enterprise


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Knowledge Management in the Enterprise

  1. 1. Using Knowledge Management, Organizational Learning, and Technology Transfer to Build Global Governance Capacity Dr. Donald E. Klingner 5 th Trans Atlantic Dialogue Washington, DC June 11-13, 2009
  2. 2. The Underlying Issues: <ul><li>What is information, knowledge and wisdom? </li></ul><ul><li>How are information and communications technologies (ICT) linked to organizational learning (OL) and knowledge management (KM)? </li></ul><ul><li>How are organizational learning and knowledge management tied to innovation diffusion and adoption (IDA)? </li></ul><ul><li>How do these affect technology transfer (TT)? </li></ul><ul><li>How can they make organizations more effective? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they build global governance capacity through sustainable “smart practice” public policy innovations? </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Information, Knowledge, Wisdom <ul><li>Information, knowledge and wisdom “drive” information and communications technologies (ICTs). </li></ul><ul><li>Information is raw data. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is categorized data, sorted based on clear or implied relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Wisdom is the application of knowledge to make individual or organizational choices. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>ICT, Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management </li></ul><ul><li>Successful organizations learn and change. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational learning (OL) involves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>individual learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organizational change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-replicating systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge management (KM) assumes that OL is coherent and purposive because it implies using information in social contexts. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 3. Innovation Diffusion and Adoption <ul><li>IDA is the spread of new products, values, policies or processes beyond the location of their original success. </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptively, it is the intended and unintended consequences of relationships between producers and consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>Prescriptively, it is the process of trying to understand how organizations can become more effective at serving customers, competing in markets, or developing products in emerging fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Public administrators want to understand what factors affect the sustainability of “best practice” innovations in order to build global governance capacity. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>ICT, OL, KM, IDA and Technology Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>ICT improves opportunities for KM and OL. </li></ul><ul><li>ICT is the technical platform that enables a knowledge management system to function by enabling people to organize and compile information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ICT is the “driver” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OL and KM are examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IDA is the process by which technology transfer (TT) occurs. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>TT and Organizational Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes for managing complexity? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Curiosity: Interest in what others think, and why. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to envision a future that’s different from a straight-line projection of the present. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling that most risks are to be taken, not avoided. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>View that crises are normal, tensions can be promising, and complexity is fun. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realization that paranoia and self-pity are reserved for people who don’t want to be leaders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of personal responsibility for the general outcome of your efforts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conviction: there is a better outcome than would result from adding up all the available expert advice. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>TT and Organizational Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Types of organizational learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tacit to tacit:” Individuals share knowledge that cannot necessarily be communicated explicitly (e.g., socialization or “on-the-job” training). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Explicit to explicit:” Individuals synthesize separate pieces of information into a new whole. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tacit to explicit:” Individuals convert tacit knowledge into a form that can be shared with other employees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Explicit to tacit:” As explicit information is shared, employees begin to internalize it so that it automatically affects their perceptions, feelings and thoughts. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 6. “Smart Practice” Policy Innovations <ul><li>Sustainable development requires that we build government capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge management is an increasingly important part of this process. </li></ul><ul><li>Scaling government agencies’ use of university research (Knott and Wildavsky, 1980): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reception: “I received the research pertinent to my work.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognition: “I read and understood this research.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion: “I participated in meetings for discussion and popularization of this research.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference: “I cited these research studies as references in my own professional reports or documents.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption: “I made efforts to use university research results.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence: “Results influenced decisions in my work unit.” </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 6. “Smart Practice” Policy Innovations <ul><li>Factors influence the use of knowledge by public officials: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>availability of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rational/technical resources to use it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Context influences the appropriate use of information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organizational culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>internal and external interest groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>perceived relevance of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>applicability to the policy issue in question </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human factors are important: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>professionalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decision-making style </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 6. “Smart Practice” Development <ul><li>Most governments have adopted new ways of relating to citizens through ICT and other innovations. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the true measure of these innovations’ value lies in the effectiveness of shared information and transferred knowledge to achieve global development based on economic growth, political participation, social justice and environmental sustainability. </li></ul><ul><li>All these require improved governance capacity. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>“ Smart Practice” Development – Organizations Must: </li></ul><ul><li>Share information about innovations and outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide incentives that create competition among innovations (for example, the Dubai Awards and UN Habitat Awards). </li></ul><ul><li>Use practical approaches pioneered by agencies and the media (television programs, case studies, networks of innovators, and a global web portal based on an internationally acceptable taxonomy). </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the values/purposes/principles underlying innovation and emphasize these in resource material and documentation. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>“ Smart Practice” Development – Organizations Must: </li></ul><ul><li>Use credible and legitimate advocates (individuals and organizations) as intermediaries in the transfer process for specific innovations. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a facilitative climate: supportive policy environment, political leadership, environmental stability, and internal social structure and capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate approaches, guidelines, training and transfer methodologies. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Comments, Questions and Suggestions? <ul><li>Dr. Donald E. Klingner </li></ul><ul><li>Profesor, School of Public Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>University of Colorado at Colorado Springs </li></ul><ul><li>1420 Austin Bluffs Parkway </li></ul><ul><li>P.O. Box 7150 </li></ul><ul><li>Colorado Springs, CO 80933 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>