Perception 6 353[1]

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PERCEPTION IS VERY IMPORTANT

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Perception 6 353[1]

  1. 1. PERCEPTION
  2. 2. <ul><li>Perception is a process </li></ul><ul><li>by which individuals </li></ul><ul><li>organize and interpret </li></ul><ul><li>their sensory impressions </li></ul><ul><li>in order to give </li></ul><ul><li>meaning to their environment </li></ul>
  3. 3. Nature of Perception <ul><li>We form impressions and make judgements & decisions about people on very little, usually subjective, information. </li></ul><ul><li>Underlying this is a need for meaning-we try to categorize experiences so as to achieve stability. </li></ul><ul><li>In achieving meaning we introduce bias or distortion through imposing inappropriate structure or incorrect criteria. </li></ul>
  4. 4. * Contd… <ul><li>Such process, which underlie subsequent judgements and decisions often occur unconsciously. </li></ul><ul><li>Once judgement and decisions are made, we become reluctant to change our views. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, we overestimate the influence of personality factors, and underestimate the influence of situational factors as causes of others’ behavior. The reverse is generally true for ourselves. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Define… <ul><li>“ The dynamic psychological process </li></ul><ul><li>responsible for attending to, </li></ul><ul><li>organizing and interpreting sensory data.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Perception… <ul><li>Involves going beyond the information given </li></ul><ul><li>Seems instantaneous </li></ul><ul><li>Is subjective </li></ul><ul><li>Directs action, it helps us function by giving us context </li></ul>
  7. 7. Necessity… <ul><li>It is unlikely that any person’s definition of reality will be exactly identical to an objective assessment of reality. </li></ul><ul><li>It is unlikely that two people’s definition of reality will be exactly the same </li></ul><ul><li>Individual perception directly influences the behavior exhibited in a given situation </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>“ The bottom line is that people who must work together often see things differently , and this difference can create problems in their ability to work together effectively ” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Model of the Perception Process Phenomenon 1 Phenomenon 2 Phenomenon 3 The five senses and the mind Observation & selection of focus Past experiences: Knowledge Feelings Analytical process Present experience: Knowledge change Current feelings New analytical process Assignment of meaning (person's reality) Behavior of person Frame of reference filter External phenomena (objective reality)
  10. 10. The Senses & External Phenomena <ul><li>Potential for variation from “ Objective Reality” </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Mechanism is part of the perceptual process </li></ul><ul><li>(See, Hear, Smell, Taste, Feel and Mind) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Observation and Selection of Focus <ul><li>Characteristics of the Perceived : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Novelty, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordering </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Characteristics of the Situation : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Context, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Role, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of the perceptual incident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the Perceiver : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The frame of reference filter <ul><li>Past experiences : </li></ul><ul><li>Past experiences illustrate the developmental aspects of the perceptual process; the past makes a difference in how you interpret the present and think about the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Present experiencing : </li></ul><ul><li>Brings in new knowledge, new analytical processes, and current feelings. The different reactions to similar situations are heavily influenced by the man’s current feelings. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Assignment of Meaning & Behavior <ul><li>The final step is the assignment of meaning to the external phenomena that have been selected and then processed through the frame of reference filter. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an interaction of characteristics of the perceived person or object, of the situation, and of the perceiver within a dynamic selection mechanism. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an interaction involving past experiences and present experiencing in the actual assignment of meaning </li></ul>
  15. 15. Errors in Perception <ul><li>Stereotyping </li></ul><ul><li>Halo Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Projection </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Fulfilling Prophecy </li></ul>
  16. 16. Overcoming Perceptual Errors <ul><li>Being aware of the tendency to make perceptual errors. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate with others to compare perceptions and to gain additional information. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on understanding other people’s points of view. </li></ul><ul><li>Be willing to change your perceptions. </li></ul><ul><li>View the world in Dynamic terms </li></ul>
  17. 17. It’s Time to fly… M.L.PANDIA

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