How is an airplane flight simulator a
kind of model?
What are some advantages to training
pilots in a flight simulator rather than in
a real airplane?
1. Explain how models are used to represent the
2. Identify three types of scientific models.
3. Describe theories and laws.
Types of Models
A representation of an object
or a system.
1. Physical Models
○ look like the thing they
○ For example, the model
volcano looks like a real one
but won’t destroy acres of
2. Mathematical Models
○ Made up of mathematical equations and data.
3. Conceptual Models
○ Systems of ideas or are based on making comparisons
with familiar things to explain an idea.
Explains the origin of the universe
Models are just the right
Often used to represent things that are very
small or very large.
Useful for studying cells and particles of matter
that are too small to see with the unaided eye.
Also useful for studying objects that are too
large to see completely
such as the Earth or the solar system.
Models build scientific
Often used to help illustrate and explain
○ Explanation that ties a broad range of hypotheses and
observations that have been supported by testing.
○ Can also be used to predict what will happen in future
Theories and models can change as new
observations are made.
Charles Darwin’s Theory of
of Atom Current Model of Atom
Formed when a theory and its models correctly
predict the results of many different experiments.
Law is defined as:
A summary of many experimental results and
Laws are not the same as theories. Laws tell
you only what happens, not why it happens.