Introduction To Plants


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Introduction To Plants

  1. 1. Bellringer There are four major types of plants. Identify the types and give at least two examples of each.
  2. 2. Objectives  Identify four characteristics that all plants share.  Describe the four main groups of plants.
  3. 3. Characteristics of Plants  Plants use energy from sunlight to make food from carbon dioxide and water. This process is called photosynthesis.  A cuticle is a waxy layer that coats most of the surfaces of plants that are exposed to air.
  4. 4. Characteristics of Plants  Plant cells are surrounded by a rigid cell wall.  Plants have two stages in their life cycle— the sporophyte stage and the gametophyte stage.
  5. 5. Plant Classification  A nonvascular plant is a plant that doesn’t have specialized tissues to move water and nutrients through the plant. They depend on diffusion.  A plant that has tissues to deliver water and nutrients from one part of the plant to another is called a vascular plant.
  6. 6. Think/Pair/Share  What are the four characteristics that all plants share?  How is a plant’s size dependent on its ability to transport water and nutrients?
  7. 7. Bellringer  If plants can make their own food, why do people add fertilizer to the soil?
  8. 8. Objectives  List three nonvascular plants and three seedless vascular plants.  Explain how seedless plants are important to the environment.  Describe the relationship between seedless vascular plants and coal.
  9. 9. Nonvascular Plants  Mosses often live together in large groups. They cover soil or rocks with a mat of tiny green plants.  Like mosses, liverworts and hornworts are usually small, nonvascular plants that usually live in damp places.
  10. 10. Importance of Nonvascular Plants  Nonvascular plants are usually the first plants to live in a new environment, such as newly exposed rock.  When these nonvascular plants die, they form a thin layer of soil.
  11. 11. Importance of Seedless Vascular Plants  Ferns, horsetails, and club mosses help form soil. They also help prevent soil erosion.  Some ferns and horsetails can be eaten. Horsetails are used in dietary supplements, shampoos, and skin-care products.  The remains of ferns, horsetails, and club mosses that lived and died 300 million years ago formed coal. Humans rely on coal for energy.
  12. 12. Think/Pair/Share  What do nonvascular plants do for the environment?  List six kinds of seedless plants.  What is the relationship between coal and seedless vascular plants?
  13. 13. Bellringer  If plants cannot move, how do they disperse their seeds?
  14. 14. Objectives  Describe three ways that seed plants differ from seedless plants.  Describe the structure of seeds.  Compare angiosperms and gymnosperms.  Explain the economic and environmental importance of gymnosperms and angiosperms..
  15. 15. Characteristics of Seed Plants  Seed plants differ from seedless plants in the following ways:  Seed plants produce seeds.  The sperm of seed plants do not need water to reach an egg. Instead they form inside pollen.
  16. 16. Parts of a Seed  A seed is made up of three parts.  The first part is a young plant, or the sporophyte.  The second part is stored food.  Finally, a seed coat surrounds and protects the young plant.
  17. 17. Advantages of Having a Seed  When a seed begins to grow, the sporophyte uses the food stored in the seed.  Seeds can be spread by animals. The spores of seedless plants are normally spread by wind.  Animals spread seeds more efficiently than the wind.
  18. 18. Gymnosperms  Seed plants that do not have flowers or fruit are called gymnosperms.  The four groups are  Conifers  Cycads  Ginkgoes  Gnetophytes
  19. 19. Importance of Gymnosperms  Conifers are the most economically important gymnosperms. People use conifer wood for building materials and paper products.  Resin, a sticky fluid produced by pine trees, is used to make soap, turpentine, paint, and ink.
  20. 20. Angiosperms  Angiosperms are vascular plants that produce flowers and fruit.  Flowers help angiosperms reproduce. Flowers attract animals that help spread pollen.  Fruits surround and protect the seeds. These fruits help angiosperms distribute their seeds.
  21. 21. Classifying Angiosperms  Angiosperms are divided into two classes— monocots and dicots.
  22. 22. Importance of Angiosperms  Flowering plants provide many land animals with the food they need to survive.  People use flowering plants in many ways. Major food crops, such as corn, wheat, and rice, are flowering plants.  Flowering plants are used to make cloth fibers, rope, medicines, rubber, perfume oil, and building materials.
  23. 23. Think/Pair/Share  Compare angiosperms and gymnosperms.  What are the three parts of the seed?
  24. 24. Bellringer  Why do cactuses have spines?
  25. 25. Objectives  List three functions of roots and three functions of stems.  Describe the structure of a leaf.  Identify the parts of a flower and their functions.
  26. 26. Vascular Tissue  There are two types of vascular tissue in plants:  Xylem is the type of tissue in vascular plants that provides support and conducts water and nutrients from the roots.  Phloem is the tissue that conducts food in vascular plants.
  27. 27. Roots..  Supply plants with water and dissolved minerals.  Hold plants securely in the soil.  Store surplus food made during photosynthesis.
  28. 28. Structure of a Root  The layers of cells that cover the surface of the roots is called the epidermis.  After water and minerals are absorbed by the epidermis, they diffuse into the center of the root where the vascular tissue is located.  A root cap can be found at the end of the root. The root cap protects the tip and helps the root continue to grow.
  29. 29. Root Systems • There are two kinds of root systems— taproot systems and fibrous root systems. • Taproot systems have a main root, or tap root, that grows downward. Dicots and gymnosperms usually have tap root systems. • Fibrous systems have several roots that spread out from the base of the stem. Monocots usually have fibrous root systems.
  30. 30. Stem Functions  A stem connects a plant’s roots to its leaves and flowers. A stem also has the following functions:  Stems support the plant body.  Stems transport materials between the root system and the shoot system.  Some stems store materials.
  31. 31. Herbaceous Stems  Many plants have stems that are soft, thin, and flexible. These stems are called herbaceous stems.
  32. 32. Leaves  The main function of leaves is to make food for the plant.  The structure of leaves, shown on the next slide, is related to their main function— photosynthesis.
  33. 33. Leaf Adaptations  Some leaves have functions other than photosynthesis.  The leaves of many cactuses are modified as spines. These spines keep animals from eating the cactuses.  The leaves of sundews are modified to catch insects, which the sundew digests.
  34. 34. Flowers  Flowers are adaptations for sexual reproduction.  The modified leaves that make up the outermost ring of flower parts and protect the bud are called sepals. They are often green like the other leaves.  Petals are broad, flat, thin leaflike parts of a flower. Petals attract animals and insects to the flower.
  35. 35.  The male reproductive structure of a flower is called a stamen.  A pistil is the female reproductive structure of a flower.
  36. 36. Importance of Flowers  Flowers help plants reproduce.  Humans use flowers for arrangement. Flowers are also used to make spices, perfumes, and lotions.  Broccoli, cauliflower, and artichokes are flowers that people eat. Chamomile and hibiscus flowers are used to make tea.
  37. 37. Think/Pair/Share  Compare xylem and phloem.  What are the two types of roots?  What are the different parts of a flower?
  38. 38. Works Cited  All images and content were taken from Holt, Rinehart, and Winston materials.