Energy and Energy Resources


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Energy and Energy Resources

  1. 1. Warmup  Finish the following sentence: Energy is …
  2. 2. Book M: Chapter 5
  3. 3. Section 1: What is Energy?  By the end of this section, you should be able to: o Explain the relationship between energy and work. o Compare kinetic energy and potential energy. o Describe the different forms of energy.
  4. 4. Energy & Work: Working Together  o Energy is the ability to do work. o Work is done when a force causes an object to move in the direction of the force. Work is a transfer of energy. o Energy and work are expressed in units of joules (J).
  5. 5. Energy & Work: Working Together 
  6. 6. Kinetic Energy  o Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. All moving objects have kinetic energy. o The amount of kinetic energy that an object has depends on its mass and velocity.
  7. 7. Kinetic Energy  
  8. 8. Kinetic Energy 
  9. 9. Potential Energy  o Potential energy is the energy an object has because of its position. o The amount of gravitational potential energy that an object has depends on its weight and its height.
  10. 10. Gravitational Potential Energy  Gravitation Potential Energy [GPE] = weight · height
  11. 11. Gravitational Potential Energy 
  12. 12. Potential Energy  o When you find out an object’s gravitational potential energy, the “ground” that you measure the object’s height from depends on where it is. o The height you use in calculating gravitational potential energy is a measure of how far an object has to fall.
  13. 13. Mechanical Energy  o Mechanical energy is the total energy of motion and position of an object. Both kinetic energy and potential energy are kinds of mechanical energy. Mechanical Energy [ME] = Potential Energy [PE] + Kinetic Energy [KE]
  14. 14. Mechanical Energy  o The mechanical energy of an object remains the same unless it transfers some energy to another object. o But even if the mechanical energy of an object stays the same, the potential energy or kinetic energy can increase or decrease.
  15. 15. Other Forms of Energy  o Thermal energy is all of the kinetic energy due to random motion of the particles that make up an object. o All matter is made up of particles that are always in random motion. So, all matter has thermal energy.
  16. 16. Other Forms of Energy  o Thermal energy increases as temperature increases and increases as the number of particles increases.
  17. 17. Other Forms of Energy  o Chemical energy is the energy of a chemical compound that changes as its atoms are rearranged. o Chemical energy is a form of potential energy because it depends on the position and arrangement of the atoms in a compound. The energy in food is chemical energy.
  18. 18. Other Forms of Energy  o Electrical energy is the energy of moving electrons. Electrical energy can be thought of as potential energy that is used when you plug in an electrical appliance and use it.
  19. 19. Other Forms of Energy  o Sound energy is caused by an object’s vibrations. The object’s vibrations transmit some kinetic energy to the air particles, which also vibrate. These vibrations transmit sound energy.
  20. 20. Other Forms of Energy  o Light energy is produced by the vibrations of electrically charged particles.
  21. 21. Other Forms of Energy  o Nuclear energy is energy that comes from changes in the nucleus of an atom. Nuclear energy can be produced when nuclei are joined in a fusion reaction or when a nucleus is split apart in a fission reaction.
  22. 22. Section 1 Review  p.131 #3-9
  23. 23. Warmup  What do the following have in common: a plant, a Bunsen burner, and a pendulum?
  24. 24. Section 2: Energy Conversions  By the end of this section, you should be able to: o Describe an energy conversion. o Give examples of energy conversions for the different forms of energy. o Explain how energy conversions make energy useful. o Explain the role of machines in energy conversions.
  25. 25. Kinetic and Potential Energies  o An energy conversion is a change from one form of energy to another. Any form of energy can change into any other form of energy. o As a skateboarder travels up and down the halfpipe, his energy changes back and forth between kinetic energy and potential energy.
  26. 26. Kinetic and Potential Energies 
  27. 27. Kinetic and Potential Energies  o Stretching a rubber band stores elastic potential energy in the rubber band. o When you let the rubber band go, it goes back to its original shape. It releases its stored-up potential energy as it does so.
  28. 28. Conversions Involving Chemical Energy  o Chemical energy is stored in the food you eat. Your body uses this chemical energy to function. o The chemical energy in the food you eat comes from the sun’s energy.
  29. 29. Conversions Involving Chemical Energy  o Plants, through the process of photosynthesis, change light energy into chemical energy.
  30. 30. Conversions Involving Chemical Energy  o The chemical energy in the food you eat is changed into another kind of chemical energy that your body can use. o Your body then uses that energy to give you kinetic energy that you use in everything you do.
  31. 31. Why Energy Conversions are Important  o Energy conversions are needed for everything we do. Heating our homes, getting energy from a meal, and many other things use energy conversions. o Machines, such as a hair dryer, help harness energy and make that energy work for you.
  32. 32. Why Energy Conversions are Important  o Some common energy conversions that involve electrical energy are shown in the table below. Alarm clock Electrical energy  light and sound energy Battery Chemical energy  electrical energy Light bulb Electrical energy  light and thermal energy Blender Electrical energy  kinetic and sound energy
  33. 33. Energy and Machines  o A machine can make work easier by changing the size, direction, or both of the force needed to do the work. Some machines allow you to use less force over a greater distance to do the same amount of work. o Some machines help you use energy by converting it into the form that you need.
  34. 34. Section Review  p.137 #2-9
  35. 35. Warmup  o Where does the energy that makes a roller coaster car move come from? o Where does the energy go?
  36. 36. Section 3: Conservation of Energy  By the end of this section, you should be able to: o Explain how energy is conserved within a closed system. o Explain the law of conservation of energy. o Give examples of how thermal energy is always a result of energy conversion. o Explain why perpetual motion is impossible.
  37. 37. Where Does the Energy Go?  o Friction is a force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are touching. o For a roller coaster car to move, energy must be used to overcome friction between the car’s wheels and the track. o As a result, not all of the car’s potential energy changes into kinetic energy and not all of the car’s kinetic energy changes back into potential energy.
  38. 38. Energy is Conserved Within a Closed System  o A closed system is a group of objects that transfer energy only to each other o The Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. o Energy can be converted from one form to another. But all of the different forms of energy in a system always add up to the same total amount of energy.
  39. 39. No Conversion Without Thermal Energy  o Any time one form of energy is converted into another form, some of the original energy always gets converted into thermal energy. o The thermal energy due to friction that results from energy conversions is not usually useful energy.
  40. 40. No Conversion Without Thermal Energy  o A perpetual motion machine is a machine that would run forever without any additional energy. o But perpetual motion machines are impossible because some waste thermal energy always results from energy conversions.
  41. 41. No Conversion Without Thermal Energy  o Some systems transform energy with less loss of heat than others do. Such systems are more efficient than others are. o Improving the efficiency of machines is important because greater efficiency results in less waste. If less energy is wasted, less energy is needed to operate a machine.
  42. 42. Section 3 Review  p.141 #2-6
  43. 43. Warmup  Predict whether the following sources of energy are renewable or nonrenewable. sunlight petroleum coal nuclear wind geothermal
  44. 44. Section 4: Energy Resources  By the end of this section, you should be able to: o Name several energy resources. o Explain how the sun is the source of most energy on Earth. o Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using various energy resources.
  45. 45. Nonrenewable Resources  o Nonrenewable resources cannot be replaced or are replaced much more slowly than they are used. o Fossil fuels are nonrenewable energy resources that formed from the remains of organisms that lived long ago. Oil, natural gas, and coal are the most common fossil fuels.
  46. 46. Nonrenewable Resources  o All fossil fuels contain stored energy from the sun, which can be converted into other kinds of energy. o Burning coal is a common way to generate electrical energy. Petroleum is used to make gasoline, wax, and plastics. Natural gas is often used in home heating.
  47. 47. Nonrenewable Resources  o Electric generators convert the chemical energy in fossil fuels into electrical energy by the process shown below.
  48. 48. Nonrenewable Resources  o Another way to generate electrical energy is to use nuclear energy. o In a process called nuclear fission, the nucleus of a radioactive atom is split into two smaller nuclei, which releases nuclear energy. o Because the supply of radioactive elements is limited, nuclear energy is a nonrenewable resource.
  49. 49. Renewable Resources  o Renewable resources are naturally replaced more quickly than they are used. o Sunlight can be changed into electrical energy through solar cells. o Solar cells can be used in devices such as calculators. They can also be placed on the roof of a house to provide electrical energy.
  50. 50. Renewable Resources  o The potential energy of water in a reservoir can be changed into kinetic energy as the water flows through a dam. o In a hydroelectric dam, falling water turns turbines. The turbines are connected to a generator that changes kinetic energy into electrical energy.
  51. 51. Renewable Resources  o The kinetic energy of wind can turn the blades of a windmill or a wind turbine. o A wind turbine changes the kinetic energy of the air into electrical energy by turning a generator.
  52. 52. Renewable Resources  o Geothermal energy is thermal energy caused by the heating of Earth’s crust. This energy can be converted into electrical energy at geothermal power plants. o Biomass is organic matter, such as plants, wood, and waste, that can be burned to release energy. Some countries depend on biomass for energy.
  53. 53. The Two Sides to Energy Resources  o All energy resources have advantages and disadvantages. Many factors determine when one energy source is a better choice than another. o Energy planning in all parts of the world requires careful consideration of energy needs and the availability and responsible use of resources.
  54. 54. The Two Sides to Energy Resources  Take a look at the Table on p.146
  55. 55. Section 4 Review  p.147 #4-9