The Atlantic World, 1492—1800Chapter 20pgs. 483—503
SPANISH CONQUESTS IN THEAMERICASSection 1pgs. 483-489
Christopher Columbus• Instead of sailing east, he sailed west in search ofa direct route to Asia and its riches– Never rea...
Los Indios• Native American’smisleading nickname• Given to Native Americansby ChrisopherColumbus, thinking theywere India
Taino• Natives to SanSlavador, the island in theBahamas, that was“discovered” byColumbus
Pedro Alvares Cabral• Portuguese explorer• Reached the shoresof modern-day Braziland claimed the landfor Portugal
Amerigo Vespucci• An Italian explorer, working for Spain• Traveled along the eastern coast of SouthAmerica• Claimed that t...
Ferdinand Magellan• 230 men, 5 ships• Sailed around the southern end of South Americaand into the unknown waters of the Pa...
Vasco Nuñez de Balboa• Spanish explorer• Walked through Panama• Became the firstEuropean to ever see thePacific Ocean
Hernando Cortez• Spaniard who landed on the shores of Mexico• Colonized several Caribbean islands• Began looking towards t...
Conquistadors• Conquerors• Spanish explorers• Carved out regionsthat would laterbecome Mexico,South America, andthe U.S.
Aztecs• Lived in present-dayMexico• Wealthy– Lots of silver/gold as naturalresources• Capital Tenochtitlan• Conquered by C...
Montezuma II• Aztec’s emperor– Beloved ruler with great speaking ability• Believed Cortes was an armor-clad god• Agreed to...
Aztecs Fall• Rebelled against intruders and drove outCortes– Cortes struck back and conquered the Aztecs• Cortes able to w...
Francisco Pizarro• Conquistador• Conquered the Incans– Altahualpa– Cajamarca
Atahualpa & Cajamarca• Atahualpa– Incan ruler– Offered Cortes a room filledwith silver and gold for hisrelease• Pizarro to...
Incans• Empire in Peru• Conquered by Pizarro• Rich in natural resources, like silverand gold
Reconquista• Spaniards usedtechniques fromthis period whilethey establishedtheir new Americanempire
peninsulares• Spanish settlers toAmerica• Mostly men– Marriage betweennatives/Spaniards
Mestizo• Mix betweenpeninsulares andnatives• Mostly men came tocolonies and thenatives where theonly women
Ecomienda• Spaniards forced NativeAmericans to labor, inan effort to get moreresources from the land• Nativesmined, farmed...
Brazil• Cabral claimed present-day Brazil for Portugal• Brazil had little naturalresources and the settlersfarmed– Produce...
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado• Led an expeditionthroughout present-dayArizona• Searched for wealthyempires to conquer• Lit...
Pedro de Peralta• Governor of Spain’snorthern holdings– New Mexico• Led settlers to atributary on theupper Rio Grange &bui...
Bartolomé de Las Casas• Dominican monk• Resented Spainstreatment of thenatives• Suggested useAfricans as slavesinstead
Popé• Pueblo ruler• Led well-organizeduprising against theSpanish– Drove Spanish backinto New Spain for 12years
COMPETING CLAIMS IN NORTHAMERICASection 1pgs. 490-494
Giovanni da Verrazzano• Italian in the service ofFrance• Sailed to North America insearch of a possible searoute to the Pa...
Jacques Cartier• Frenchman• Reached a gulf off the coast of the easterncoast of Canada, that led to a broad river– St. Law...
Samuel de Champlain• Sailed up the St.Lawrence• Claimed region, hecalled Quebec– Later become thebasis of France’scolonial...
New France• France’s colonialempire inAmerica• Quebec base
Jacques Marquette & Louis Joliet• Marquette: FrenchPriest• Joliet: trader• Explored the GreatLakes and the upperMississippi
Sieur da LaSalle• Explored the lowerMississippi• Claimed the entireriver valley for France• Named it Louisiana inhonor of ...
Jamestown• English colony in Virginia• Named Jamestown in honor of King James• Start was disastrous– More interested in fi...
Pilgrims• Founded England’ssecond colony inPlymouth• Persecuted for theirreligious beliefs inEngland, they soughtreligious...
Puritans• Sought religious freedoms• Established colony nearby Massachusetts bay• Wanted to build a model community thatwo...
Henry Hudson• Englishman in theservice of theNetherlands• Searching for anorthwest route toAsia– Didn’t find route– Found ...
New Netherlands• Dutch holdings in North America• Profited from fur trade• Slow to attract colonists• Made up of land clai...
English overpower the Dutch• “Dutch Wedge” separated its northern andsouthern colonies• Charles II granted his brother, Du...
French and Indian War• Known as Seven Years War in Britain• Britain and France battled for territory andsupremacy in the W...
Relations with NativesFrench– mostly cooperative• Mutual benefit of fur trade– Occasionally foughtEnglish– early relations...
Heathens• People without faith• English colonists believed that NativeAmericans were Heathens– Puritans viewed them as age...
Powhatan Tribe• Attacked colonialvillages aroundJamestown, killingabout 350 settlers– Colonists retaliated bymassacring th...
Metacom• “King Phillip”• Led an attack on 52 colonial villagesthroughout Massachusetts• Months followed both massacred the...
Natives killed by disease• Europeans brought many diseases with them• Smallpox dropped Native Americanpopulation from 24,0...
THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADESection 3pgs. 495-499
Slavery in Africa• Introduction of Islam in Africa increased slavery– Muslim beliefs that non-Muslim prisoners of warcould...
Desire for Africans• As natives began dying from disease, thecolonies needed new workers• Advantages of Africans– Been exp...
Atlantic Slave Trade• The buying and selling of African slaves forwork in the Americas• 1500-1600, 300,000 Africans were b...
Slavery in Americas• Majority of slaves worked onsugar, tobacco, and coffee plantations• England began to dominate the Atl...
African Cooperation• Many african merchants and rulers supportedthe Atlantic Slave Trade– Didn’t see difference from selii...
King Nzinga Mbemba• Didn’t agree with Atlantic Slave Trade• “Affonso”• Originally participated in the slave trade• Wrote l...
Triangular Trade• Transatlantic tradingnetwork– Between BritishColonies, Africa, andBritain
Middle Passage• The voyage thatbrought capturedslaves from Africa tothe Americas• Horrible conditions forthe slaves and ma...
Ouaudah Eauiano• Recalled inhumane conditions on his trip to the WestIndies, at age 11 in 1756– I was soon put down under ...
Harsh Life of Slaves• After arriving in America, slaves wereauctioned off to the highest bidder• Had hard jobs• Little to ...
Slave Resistance/Rebellion• made themselves less productive, as thoughto hurt their owners profits• 1522 slaves revolted, ...
Stono Rebellion• Group of slaves in South Carolina led anuprising• Killed several colonists• Engaged the local militia in ...
Consequences of Atlantic Trade• Africa– Numerous cultures lost entire generations– Introduced guns• Colonies– economic and...
THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE ANDGLOBAL TRADESection 4pgs. 500-503
Colombian Exchange• A global transfer of plants, animals, and diseases thatoccurred during the European colonization of No...
Commercial Revolution• The expansion of trade and business that hadtransformed European economics• New business and trade ...
Capitalism• Economic system based on private ownershipand investment of wealth for profit• Merchants, who had gained money...
Joint-Stock Company• Number of people pooling their wealth for acommon purpose– Failed/prospered wouldn’t loose/gain as mu...
Mercantilism• A countries power depended mostly on itswealth• It was wealth that allowed nations to buildstrong armies, an...
Favorable Balance of Trade• A country sold moregoods than it bought
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The Atlantic World, 1492—1800

2,200 views

Published on

World History Patterns of Interaction

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

The Atlantic World, 1492—1800

  1. 1. The Atlantic World, 1492—1800Chapter 20pgs. 483—503
  2. 2. SPANISH CONQUESTS IN THEAMERICASSection 1pgs. 483-489
  3. 3. Christopher Columbus• Instead of sailing east, he sailed west in search ofa direct route to Asia and its riches– Never reached Asia, reached island in the Caribbean• Named it San Salvador• Mistakenly gave Native Americans name losindos, thinking he was in India• Interested in gold• Later journey back to America, not as an explorer,but as an empire bulder, and began to colonizeAmerica
  4. 4. Los Indios• Native American’smisleading nickname• Given to Native Americansby ChrisopherColumbus, thinking theywere India
  5. 5. Taino• Natives to SanSlavador, the island in theBahamas, that was“discovered” byColumbus
  6. 6. Pedro Alvares Cabral• Portuguese explorer• Reached the shoresof modern-day Braziland claimed the landfor Portugal
  7. 7. Amerigo Vespucci• An Italian explorer, working for Spain• Traveled along the eastern coast of SouthAmerica• Claimed that the newly discovered land wasn’tpart of Asia, but part of a “new world”• America named after him
  8. 8. Ferdinand Magellan• 230 men, 5 ships• Sailed around the southern end of South Americaand into the unknown waters of the Pacific– Sailed for months without seeing land– Bad food, conditions• Eventually reached the Philippines– Became involved in local war• killed• 18 of original crew returned home• First people to sail around the world
  9. 9. Vasco Nuñez de Balboa• Spanish explorer• Walked through Panama• Became the firstEuropean to ever see thePacific Ocean
  10. 10. Hernando Cortez• Spaniard who landed on the shores of Mexico• Colonized several Caribbean islands• Began looking towards the American inland as asource of income• “conquistador”• Refused to accept Montezuma II’s offer of a shareto the gold that the Aztecs already had• Driven out by Aztec rebels• Conquered Aztecs
  11. 11. Conquistadors• Conquerors• Spanish explorers• Carved out regionsthat would laterbecome Mexico,South America, andthe U.S.
  12. 12. Aztecs• Lived in present-dayMexico• Wealthy– Lots of silver/gold as naturalresources• Capital Tenochtitlan• Conquered by Cortes
  13. 13. Montezuma II• Aztec’s emperor– Beloved ruler with great speaking ability• Believed Cortes was an armor-clad god• Agreed to give the Spanish a portion of thegold/silver that they already had• Later denounced a traitor when he tried tostop the Aztecs from fighting Spain
  14. 14. Aztecs Fall• Rebelled against intruders and drove outCortes– Cortes struck back and conquered the Aztecs• Cortes able to win rebellion because– Spanish had superior weapons– Help from locals who hated the Aztecs– Aztec’s immune system unable to cope withdiseases brought over by Europeans
  15. 15. Francisco Pizarro• Conquistador• Conquered the Incans– Altahualpa– Cajamarca
  16. 16. Atahualpa & Cajamarca• Atahualpa– Incan ruler– Offered Cortes a room filledwith silver and gold for hisrelease• Pizarro took ransom and waskilled• Cajamarca– Incan capital– Conquered by Pizarro
  17. 17. Incans• Empire in Peru• Conquered by Pizarro• Rich in natural resources, like silverand gold
  18. 18. Reconquista• Spaniards usedtechniques fromthis period whilethey establishedtheir new Americanempire
  19. 19. peninsulares• Spanish settlers toAmerica• Mostly men– Marriage betweennatives/Spaniards
  20. 20. Mestizo• Mix betweenpeninsulares andnatives• Mostly men came tocolonies and thenatives where theonly women
  21. 21. Ecomienda• Spaniards forced NativeAmericans to labor, inan effort to get moreresources from the land• Nativesmined, farmed, orranched for Spanishlandlords• Many where abused todeath
  22. 22. Brazil• Cabral claimed present-day Brazil for Portugal• Brazil had little naturalresources and the settlersfarmed– Produced a lot of sugar
  23. 23. Francisco Vásquez de Coronado• Led an expeditionthroughout present-dayArizona• Searched for wealthyempires to conquer• Little gold/resources– Spain assigned mostly prieststo explore and colonizeAmerica
  24. 24. Pedro de Peralta• Governor of Spain’snorthern holdings– New Mexico• Led settlers to atributary on theupper Rio Grange &built a capital calledSanta Fe
  25. 25. Bartolomé de Las Casas• Dominican monk• Resented Spainstreatment of thenatives• Suggested useAfricans as slavesinstead
  26. 26. Popé• Pueblo ruler• Led well-organizeduprising against theSpanish– Drove Spanish backinto New Spain for 12years
  27. 27. COMPETING CLAIMS IN NORTHAMERICASection 1pgs. 490-494
  28. 28. Giovanni da Verrazzano• Italian in the service ofFrance• Sailed to North America insearch of a possible searoute to the Pacific• Discovered modern-dayNew York Harbor
  29. 29. Jacques Cartier• Frenchman• Reached a gulf off the coast of the easterncoast of Canada, that led to a broad river– St. Lawrence River• Followed river until he reached large island– Named it Mount Royal– Renamed it Montreal
  30. 30. Samuel de Champlain• Sailed up the St.Lawrence• Claimed region, hecalled Quebec– Later become thebasis of France’scolonial empire inNorth America,known as New France
  31. 31. New France• France’s colonialempire inAmerica• Quebec base
  32. 32. Jacques Marquette & Louis Joliet• Marquette: FrenchPriest• Joliet: trader• Explored the GreatLakes and the upperMississippi
  33. 33. Sieur da LaSalle• Explored the lowerMississippi• Claimed the entireriver valley for France• Named it Louisiana inhonor of Louis XIV
  34. 34. Jamestown• English colony in Virginia• Named Jamestown in honor of King James• Start was disastrous– More interested in finding gold than planting crops– 7/10 people died from hunger, disease, or fighting with theNative Americans• Englands first permanent settlement in North America• Earned a lot of money selling tobacco• Became stable after James took control, and made it aroyal colony
  35. 35. Pilgrims• Founded England’ssecond colony inPlymouth• Persecuted for theirreligious beliefs inEngland, they soughtreligious freedoms
  36. 36. Puritans• Sought religious freedoms• Established colony nearby Massachusetts bay• Wanted to build a model community thatwould set an example for other Christians tofollow• Colonist were families, not males like inJamestown
  37. 37. Henry Hudson• Englishman in theservice of theNetherlands• Searching for anorthwest route toAsia– Didn’t find route– Found HudsonRiver, Hudson Bay, andHudson Strait
  38. 38. New Netherlands• Dutch holdings in North America• Profited from fur trade• Slow to attract colonists• Made up of land claimed by Henry Hudson• “Confusion of to ungues”– Dutch, Germans, French, Scandinavians, and otherEuropean settled there– Protestants, Catholics, Muslims, and Jews
  39. 39. English overpower the Dutch• “Dutch Wedge” separated its northern andsouthern colonies• Charles II granted his brother, Duke of Yorkpermission to drive out the Dutch– Dutch surrendered without firing a shot• Dutch gone and English continued to colonize– Colonies from New Hampshire to Georgia
  40. 40. French and Indian War• Known as Seven Years War in Britain• Britain and France battled for territory andsupremacy in the West Indies• In North America, the British colonists, withthe help of the British Army, defeated theFrench in 1763– French surrendered their holdings in America– British seized control of nearly the eastern half ofNorth America
  41. 41. Relations with NativesFrench– mostly cooperative• Mutual benefit of fur trade– Occasionally foughtEnglish– early relations were cooperative– Worsened over the issues of land and religion– English pushed the Native of their land toaccommodate population of colony
  42. 42. Heathens• People without faith• English colonists believed that NativeAmericans were Heathens– Puritans viewed them as agents of the devil and asa threat to their godly society– Native Americans developed a similar veiw to thecolonists• Caused strained relations
  43. 43. Powhatan Tribe• Attacked colonialvillages aroundJamestown, killingabout 350 settlers– Colonists retaliated bymassacring thePowhatan
  44. 44. Metacom• “King Phillip”• Led an attack on 52 colonial villagesthroughout Massachusetts• Months followed both massacred the otherside• After year of fighting, colonists defeated theNatives
  45. 45. Natives killed by disease• Europeans brought many diseases with them• Smallpox dropped Native Americanpopulation from 24,000 to 750• Natives death caused the colonist to look for anew way of labor—Africans
  46. 46. THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADESection 3pgs. 495-499
  47. 47. Slavery in Africa• Introduction of Islam in Africa increased slavery– Muslim beliefs that non-Muslim prisoners of warcould be sold into slavery• 650—1600 Muslims delivered 4.8 millionAfricans to SW Asia• Slaves had some legal rights opportunities ofsocial mobility– Could be general in army– Could buy land and own slaves– Children of slaves weren’t born slaves
  48. 48. Desire for Africans• As natives began dying from disease, thecolonies needed new workers• Advantages of Africans– Been exposed to Europeans and built up immunesystem to their diseases– Had experience farming and would be able towork on plantations– Unfamiliar to land• No familiar tribes in which to hide in• Less likely to escape
  49. 49. Atlantic Slave Trade• The buying and selling of African slaves forwork in the Americas• 1500-1600, 300,000 Africans were brought tothe Americas
  50. 50. Slavery in Americas• Majority of slaves worked onsugar, tobacco, and coffee plantations• England began to dominate the Atlantic SlaveTrade, as it grew– Imported 1.7 million slaves to colonies
  51. 51. African Cooperation• Many african merchants and rulers supportedthe Atlantic Slave Trade– Didn’t see difference from seliing to Westerners• African merchants, with the help of the localrulers captured Africans to be enslaved– Exchanged for guns, gold, and other goods
  52. 52. King Nzinga Mbemba• Didn’t agree with Atlantic Slave Trade• “Affonso”• Originally participated in the slave trade• Wrote letter to the king of Portugal in whichhe protested the taking of Africans for slaves
  53. 53. Triangular Trade• Transatlantic tradingnetwork– Between BritishColonies, Africa, andBritain
  54. 54. Middle Passage• The voyage thatbrought capturedslaves from Africa tothe Americas• Horrible conditions forthe slaves and manypeople died orcommitted suicide– About 20% died
  55. 55. Ouaudah Eauiano• Recalled inhumane conditions on his trip to the WestIndies, at age 11 in 1756– I was soon put down under the decks, and there I receivedsuch a salutation [greeting] in my nostrils as I neverexperienced in my life; so that, with the loathsomeness ofthe stench, and crying together, I became so sick and lowthat I was not able to eat . . . but soon, to my grief, two ofthe white men offered me eatables; and on my refusing toeat, one of them held me fast by the hands, and laid meacross . . . The windlass, while the other flogged meseverely.OLAUDAH EQUIANO, quoted inEyewitness: The Negro in American History
  56. 56. Harsh Life of Slaves• After arriving in America, slaves wereauctioned off to the highest bidder• Had hard jobs• Little to eat• Often suffered whippings and beatings• Slavery was hereditary– Slaves children were born slaves
  57. 57. Slave Resistance/Rebellion• made themselves less productive, as thoughto hurt their owners profits• 1522 slaves revolted, killing several Spanishcolonists• In Columbia, slaves destroyed the entire townof Santa Marta
  58. 58. Stono Rebellion• Group of slaves in South Carolina led anuprising• Killed several colonists• Engaged the local militia in battle• Many slaves died during the fight• Those captured were executed• Despite failures, uprisings continued into the1800s
  59. 59. Consequences of Atlantic Trade• Africa– Numerous cultures lost entire generations– Introduced guns• Colonies– economic and cultural development– New growing techniques– Larger African American population
  60. 60. THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE ANDGLOBAL TRADESection 4pgs. 500-503
  61. 61. Colombian Exchange• A global transfer of plants, animals, and diseases thatoccurred during the European colonization of NorthAmerica
  62. 62. Commercial Revolution• The expansion of trade and business that hadtransformed European economics• New business and trade practices
  63. 63. Capitalism• Economic system based on private ownershipand investment of wealth for profit• Merchants, who had gained moneyoverseas, were investing money in otherenterprises– Business across Europe flourished• Inflation caused prices of goods to rise
  64. 64. Joint-Stock Company• Number of people pooling their wealth for acommon purpose– Failed/prospered wouldn’t loose/gain as much• Joint-stock companies used to establishcolonies– Jamestown developed through joint-stockcompany
  65. 65. Mercantilism• A countries power depended mostly on itswealth• It was wealth that allowed nations to buildstrong armies, and purchase vital goods• Goal of every nation was to become wealthy
  66. 66. Favorable Balance of Trade• A country sold moregoods than it bought

×