Shakespeare and the theater


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Shakespeare and the theater

  1. 1. Shakespeare
  2. 2. Life ofShakespeare
  3. 3. Shakespeare• Born April 23, 1564 in Stratford-uponAvon• His father, John Shakespeare was asuccessful glove maker– Finally given coat of arms (family crest)in 1596 after William’s success• His mother, Mary Arden came from arich, landowning family• Was the third of eight siblings,although his two older siblings diedyoung
  4. 4. Shakespeare in love• November 1582, 18 year oldShakespeare married 26 year oldAnne Hathaway, also of Stratfordupon Avon• May 1583, Susanna (1st child) wasborn• Had three kids:Susanna, Hamnet, and Judith– Hamnet died at eleven, leavingShakespeare without a son
  5. 5. “All the World’s a Stage”• 1588, Shakespeare began writingand acting– Five poems– 154 sonnets– 37 plays• Histories, comedies, and tragedies• In 1599, Shakespeare became aprinciple holder of the globetheater
  6. 6. The Globe• James Burbage built the first theaternamed, ―The Theater‖• Where Burbage built thetheater, charged too high of a rent andBurbage decided to relocate acrossthe River Thames• Moved materials from ―The Theater‖across the river to South Bank andused them to build the ―Globe Theater‖• Southbank was a ―liberty‖ or suburbjust outside of London (where theaters
  7. 7. The End of the Globe• Extremely lucrative (money making)until 1613• During the performance of HenryVII, the Globe caught fire and wasburnt down• Rebuilt in 1614– ―The Globe II‖• 1624, Globe shut down by PuritanEngland
  8. 8. New Place• 1597, Shakespeare bought NewPlace where he would retire in 1611• New Place destroyed afterShakespeare’s death– Too many tourists ruined it, althoughsome of the gardens still remain intact
  9. 9. The Death of the Bard• Shakespeare died April 23, 1616• Buried in Holt Trinity Church inStratford-upon-Avon• Anne Hathaway (wife) died inAugust 1623• Anne Hathaway, daughterSusanna, Dr. John Hall (son-in-law)and Thomas Nash (Susanna’s son-in-law) were buried next to
  10. 10. ““Curse Been”• Curse on Shakespeares grave– Good friend for Jesus sake forbearTo dig the dust enclosed here!Blest be the man that spares thesestones,And curst be he that moves my bones• Stated that no body could dig up hisbones– Common for religious/research purposesto dig up bodies and experiment on them• Shakespeare fear of exhumationcaused him to put in his will that he
  11. 11. Elizabethan Theater
  12. 12. Queen Elizabeth• Queen Elizabeths reign: 1558—1603• Known as ―Golden Age‖ because itwas the height of the Britishrenaissance– Poetry and drama flourished under her• Time of religious peace becauseeveryone was following the Church ofEngland (Christianity)– Some citizens practicedCatholicism, which Elizabeth, unlike manyother rulers of the time, allowed– Elizabeth did not, ―look into the hearts‖ of
  13. 13. Early Theater• Elizabeth was frugal, which helped herrestore Englands budget– Because of the financial stability, thepeople of England, including Elizabeth,began enjoying the theater• Before Elizabeth’s reign, plays wereperformed by noblemen actors• In 1572, actors began to be required tohave a patron in order to keep traveling onthe road to perform in different towns– As a result of this decree, acting becamebetter, because actors and playwrightswere forced to hone their craft to ensure
  14. 14. Strict London• The city of London considered actorsmaster less men so they were lookeddown upon and werent allowed withinthe city limits• Queen Elizabeth, on the otherhand, enjoyed theatre, and acompromise was reached whentheatres began to spring up inLondons suburbs, specifically thoselocated on the south side of the RiverThames• Also located in South worth were otherunseemly activities, including bearbaiting, cock fighting and prostitution
  15. 15. Popular Elizabethan Theaters• On of the most popular theaterswas, ―The Theater‖– Built by James Burbage and JohnBrayne in Shoreditch in the year 1576• More companies soon followed suit:– The Rose 1587– The Swan 1595– The Fortune 1600
  16. 16. Construction of Elizabethan Theaters• Theaters during the Elizabethan eralooked much different than moderntheater– almost round in shape– Had a wood exterior– Had a thatched roof (making itextremely flammable)– Had three stories that surrounded anopen space at the center
  17. 17. All the Classes Gather• The theater brought all differentclasses together to enjoy oneperformance• 15% of London’s population wouldattend the theaters at any givenday, but the Queen was the mostimportant audience– Elizabeth would have to okay every playbefore it was performed, and had toapprove/disapprove any play• Because of this, playwrights would find a wayto flatter the Queen within the play to win her
  18. 18. Classes are Separate• Despite the fact that all the classeswere together to watch oneperformance, there was still a veryrigid structure of acceptance• Each watched the play fromdifferent sections of the theatre– Upper Class: sat in the ―RoyalBox‖, which was located on the thirdstory, (or Upper Gallery)– Wealthy: sat in the middlegallery, while the moderately wealthy
  19. 19. “Groundlings”• Any commoner who attended theshow was known as a groundling• Because their entry was one pence,they had to stand in the open areaat the center of the theatre on theground• Groundlings would often yell insultsor suggestions at the actors and onmany occasions throw food on thestage if they didn’t like what was
  20. 20. All Audiences• Because playwrights had to appealto both the lower and the upperclass, they would include subtlecompliments to the Queen andbawdy (dirty) jokes for the lowerclass• Playwrights would do this byincluding– Comic relief– Action
  21. 21. Staging a Show• To stage a show, you needed– A patron– A company– Shareholders– Playwright(s)– Actors– Costumes– Props– An Audience
  22. 22. The Lord Chamberlains Men• Shakespeare’s acting company• Produced by Lord Chamberlain in1594• As a patron, Lord Chamberlain wasbasically the behind-the-scenesman that gave the companypermission and money to performtheir shows
  23. 23. Shareholders• A company was compromised ofshareholder who, much likemodern-day shareholders, owned apiece of a company• These shareholders wereresponsible for managing thecompany• Most, if not all, shareholders werealso the major actors in the plays
  24. 24. The Playwright• All playwrights at this time were men• Some were formally educated atOxford or Cambridge, but many werenot• While Shakespeare himself was alsoan actor, most playwrights stayedbehind the scenes• A playwrights was paid incrementallythroughout the writing process, and ifhis play was accepted, he wouldreceive a part of the profit• Once he handed his play over to thecompany, it was no longer his, it was
  25. 25. Actors• With the major role already filled bythe shareholdes, minor actors werehired by the company to act in smallroles• Rarely showe the same show twodays in a row –pressure on actorswas tremendous• A good memory was helpful, but not100% necessay– ―Cue acting‖
  26. 26. A Boys Club• Women were not allowe to performon stage until 1630• Pre-pubescent boys were dressedin costume an played womens roles
  27. 27. Costumes• Costumes were extremely elaborateduring Shakespeare’s time• Scenery was not, so often times thecostumes would set the tone for theplay• Costumes were so important whentrying to convincingly portray menas women
  28. 28. Setting the Scene (with no scenery)• In order to inform their audienceabout the setting, Shakespeare andhis contemporaries would alwayshave a character mentionsomething about the setting at thebeginning of the scene if it wasimportant to the play
  29. 29. The Plays themselves• Whether knowingly or not,Shakespeare used a rigid structurethat helped him write solidly-structured plays quickly• The most important structure toknow in the plot structure
  30. 30. Plot Structure of TragedyExpositionComplicationRisingActionClimaxFallingActionMomentof finalsuspenseCatastrophe
  31. 31. Drama Terms
  32. 32. Types of Speech• Monologue: a long, interruptedspeech spoken in the presence ofother characters• Soliloquy: a speech, usuallylengthy, in which a character, alone onstage, expresses his/her thoughts onstage• Dialogue: conversation between twoor more characters, (seeking a mutualunderstanding)• Aside: words spoken by a character in
  33. 33. Character Types• Chorus: a company of performerswhose singing and narration provideexplanation• Foil: when one characters traits aredifferent from the opposingcharacter, therefore making oneseem different then they are• Protagonist: main character• Antagonist: opposes main
  34. 34. Other Key Terms• Prolouge: introduction to a piece ofdrama before a performance– The prolouge in The Tragedy of Romeoand Juliet was delivered by the chorus• Tragedy: a lay that tells of thedestruction of a noble hero• Comic relief: in a tragedy, a shortcomic scene that provieds respite fromthe building tension of the play• Blank Verse: poetry written inunrhymed lamble pentameter line– ―Two households, both alike in dignity/ Infair Verona where we lay our scene‖