Infection Control and Universal Precautions for preventing the spread of communicable diseases, presented to you by CCFI. Research provided by Linda Soper.
Infection: Caused by human pathogens (bacteria, viruses or microorganisms) which can invade the body and compromise its well-being. Any situation that brings people together (such as the workplace) provides an opportunity for the transmission of infectious agents.
How does stuff spread? Contact- Direct or indirect Airborne droplets from sneezing or coughing can spread or carry infectious agents through the air from one person to another.
80% of germs are spread via direct contact with an infected person or the person’s body fluid/tissues. Infection can also be transmitted through indirect contact when a non-infected person touches the surface of an object that was touched by an infected person, like the sick person using a phone, then some other unlucky person coming along and using the same, germy phone.
It is best practice to treat all blood and body fluids as potentially infectious. It is impossible to tell who is infected with hepatitis or HIV by appearances. Many have no knowledge or symptoms of their diseases.
Good personal hygiene is the first line of defense. Basic techniques include regular hand washing and keeping the workplace clean. Wash hands frequently. Dry your hands with disposable paper towels Use waterless hand cleaner only if no soap and water is available You should thoroughly wash your hands with water and soap for at least 15 seconds Before and after touching someone or something potentially infectious After removing gloves After handling potentially infectious material After using the bathroom Before eating, smoking, applying cosmetics, handling contact lens
Cover any cuts or abrasions with a waterproof dressing. Wear gloves if you are handling body fluids or equipment containing body fluids or if you are touching someone else's broken skin or mucus membrane Make a point of not sharing personal items Don't share towels, clothing, cups which haven’t been washed or other personal items. If at all possible, users should have personal telephones, and telephones should be regularly cleaned and sterilized.
Bloodborne Pathogens are infectious microorganisms present in blood that can cause disease in humans. Workers exposed to bloodborne pathogens can be at risk for serious or life-threatening illnesses.
Pathogens you should be aware of are Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV/AIDS.
Hepatitis B is an Infection of the liver It Can lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer and death There is a 20% risk of infection with a contaminated sharp object The Virus can survive in dried blood up to 7 days Vaccination is Recommended for all high risk groups The vaccine is 3 shots- initial , 1 mo., 6 mo. The vaccine offers Life-long immunity
Hepatitis C is the Most common chronic blood borne infection in US It Causes liver damage, cirrhosis and liver cancer There is a 2% risk of infection by contaminated sharp There are 50,000 needlesticks annually related to HCV infected patients There is NO vaccine and NO cure for Hepatitis C
HIV/AIDS Attacks the body’s immune system Suffers of this disease are Unable to fight off other infections, and there are 6,000 new infections every day. This disease Can be contracted through accidental occupational exposure There is No vaccine and no cure
What are your chances of HIV infection? If you are exposed to HIV infected blood/body fluids by: A dirty needle/sharp: you have a 3 in 1000 chance Mucous membrane splash: 1 in 1000 Non-intact skin: 1 in 1000 chance Prompt antiviral treatment after exposure can reduce risk of infection by 60 – 80%
Who is at risk for infection from bloodborne pathogens? Anyone who comes in contact with human blood or body fluids which may contain blood Anyone who touches potentially contaminated surfaces or equipment
How do bloodborne pathogens enter your body? Open cuts and nicks *Skin abrasions *Dermatitis *Acne *Mucous membranes of eyes, nose or mouth
How can you reduce your risk of exposure? Wearing Personal protective equipment Using Engineering controls Following Work Practice Controls Getting the Hepatitis B vaccine
What are some examples of Personal protective equipment? Gloves- use them any time contact with blood or other body fluids may occur—these are located in the first aid kit Masks and eye protection- use them if there is any chance of splashing into the mouth nose or eyes; a CPR mouth guard is located in CCFI first aid kits Gowns/lab coats, shoe covers- use them if there is a risk of splattering or spilling on clothes or skin
Engineering controls are Devices that reduce employee risk by isolating or removing the hazard Examples include: Sharps containers and Biosafety cabinets
Work Practice controls include: proper handling of sharps proper disposal of infectious waste wearing appropriate PPE And Handwashing- (the single most important means of preventing the spread of infection from BBP)
What should you do with biohazard waste? Discard contaminated sharps in approved sharps containers Discard all other infectious material in biohazard trash bags to be picked up by biohazard waste technicians and incinerated
What should you do with spill of body fluids? Isolate the area. Wear appropriate PPE (gloves, a plastic apron and eye protection, such as goggles). Soak up the fluid with disposable paper towels Mix one part bleach to 10 parts water and apply to the area for 10 minutes Wash with hot water and detergent. Remember not to store bleach with water for extended periods of time
What should you do with a body fluid spill? Dry the area. Dispose of paper towels and gloves appropriately Wash your hands Rinse any contaminated clothing in cold running water, soak in bleach solution for half an hour, then wash separately from other clothing or linen with hot water and detergent
When is someone considered exposed? Anyone who comes in contact with human blood or body fluids which may contain blood Anyone who touches potentially contaminated surfaces or equipment What should you do if you are exposed? Wash area with soap and water Splash to mucous membranes- rinse or flush with water for 15 min Have source of infection remain available Immediately inform your supervisor of the incident Seek medical attention. A medical professional will provide you with appropriate testing, treatment and education