Fanny Mlinarsky Octo Scope White Space Broadband10608

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  • This year number of smartphones + tablets shipped is higher than number of PCsA whole new market equal to the size of PCs has been born.
  • This slide shows 802.11b/g channel allocations across the well defined regulatory domains. Notice that consecutive channels overlap and this is a well-known issue for wi-fi services. If two or more wi-fi network are within range of each other and operating on overlapping channels, they will be unable to decode each other’s transmissions and thus unable to participate in the collision avoidance protocol. So these networks will hear each other’s transmissions as noise. For this reason, it is recommended that only non-overlapping channels are used for Wi-Fi. In the US these are channels 1, 6 and 11.
  • OFDM has proven to make the best use of the challenging wireless channel. The figure at the lower left shows that the quality of the wireless channel varies as a function of frequency and as a function of time. Even if I stand with my wireless device in one place, the signal at its receiver will fluctuate. The nulls in the signal are due to multipath and doppler fading. The wider the channel, the more difficult it is to equalize the received signal. OFDM takes a divide and conquer approach.OFDM transforms the frequency- and time-variable fading channel into multiple parallel correlated flat-fading channels. The narrow channels of each OFDM subcarrier exhibit small variations, making equalization simple. Thus, the OFDM channel can be arbitrarily wide. When OFDM is combined with multiple antenna techniques that we will discuss later, we can very effectively combat the time and frequency variability of the channel.
  • 3GPP has defined EPS in Release 8 as a framework for an evolution or migration of the3GPP system to a higher-data-rate, lower-latency packet-optimized system that supports multiple radio-access technologies. The focus of this work is on the packet switcheddomain, with the assumption that the system will support all services—including voice—in this domain. (EPS was previously called System ArchitectureEvolution.)Although it will most likely be deployed in conjunction with LTE, EPS could also be deployed for use with HSPA+, where it could provide a stepping-stone to LTE. EPS willbe optimized for all services to be delivered via IP in a manner that is as efficient as possible—through minimization of latency within the system, for example. It will supportservice continuity across heterogeneous networks, which will be important for LTE operators that must simultaneously support GSM/GPRS/EDGE/UMTS/HSPA customers.One important performance aspect of EPS is a flatter architecture. For packet flow, EPS includes two network elements, called Evolved Node B (eNodeB) and the AccessGateway (AGW). The eNodeB (base station) integrates the functions traditionally performed by the radio-network controller, which previously was a separate nodecontrolling multiple Node Bs. Meanwhile, the AGW integrates the functions traditionally performed by the SGSN. The AGW has both control functions, handled through theMobile Management Entity (MME), and user plane (data communications) functions. The user plane functions consist of two elements: a serving gateway that addresses 3GPPmobility and terminates eNodeB connections, and a Packet Data Network (PDN) gateway that addresses service requirements and also terminates access by non-3GPP networks.The MME, serving gateway, and PDN gateways can be collocated in the same physicalnode or distributed, based on vendor implementations and deployment scenarios.The EPS architecture is similar to the HSPA One-Tunnel Architecture, discussed in the“HSPA+” section, which allows for easy integration of HSPA networks to the EPS. EPSalso allows integration of non-3GPP networks such as WiMAX.EPS will use IMS as a component. It will also manage QoS across the whole system,which will be essential for enabling a rich set of multimedia-based services.The MME, serving gateway, and PDN gateways can be collocated in the same physicalnode or distributed, based on vendor implementations and deployment scenarios.The EPS architecture is similar to the HSPA One-Tunnel Architecture, discussed in the“HSPA+” section, which allows for easy integration of HSPA networks to the EPS. EPSalso allows integration of non-3GPP networks such as WiMAX.EPS will use IMS as a component. It will also manage QoS across the whole system,which will be essential for enabling a rich set of multimedia-based services.Elements of the EPS architecture include:- Support for legacy GERAN and UTRAN networks connected via SGSN.- Support for new radio-access networks such as LTE.- The Serving Gateway that terminates the interface toward the 3GPP radio-accessnetworks.- The PDN gateway that controls IP data services, does routing, allocates IPaddresses, enforces policy, and provides access for non-3GPP access networks.- The MME that supports user equipment context and identity as well asauthenticates and authorizes users.- The Policy Control and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) that manages QoSaspects.
  • Most WCDMA and HSDPA deployments are based on FDD, where the operator uses different radio bands for transmit and receive. An alternate approach is TDD, in whichboth transmit and receive functions alternate in time on the same radio channel.Many data applications are asymmetric, with the downlink consuming more bandwidth than the uplink, especially for applications like Web browsing or multimedia downloads. A TDD radio interface can dynamically adjust the downlink-to-uplink ratio accordingly, hence balancing both forward-link and reverse-link capacity.TDD systems require network synchronization and careful coordination between operators or guard bands.
  • This table shows the FDD bands that are allocated in different regions of the world. The regions are shown in right column. FDD spectrum is paired spectrum, so for each channel we have the uplink band and the downlink band. The FDD frequency range spans from around 700 MHz to just under 2700 MHz.
  • The TDD bands are generally higher in frequency than the FDD channels. One reason for this is that TDD bands are more recent allocations. FDD bands have also been allocated for use by 3G. The TDD frequency range is from 1850 to 2620 MHz.
  • This is a partial view of the US spectrum allocation with the unlicensed bands highlighted. Proprietary services are marked in yellow. Standards based services are marked in blue. In the background is the US spectrum allocation chart which you can find at the link shown in the bottom of the slide.The ISM-900 band, aka 915 MHz band is a valuable band because it is relatively wide (26 MHz in the US) and, being lower in frequency than other unlicensed bands, exhibits lower propagation losses, enabling long range transmission. Long used by consumer devices such as cordless phones, garage openers and baby monitors, this band is now assuming a higher importance for new wireless applications involving smart metering and industrial controls.The 2.4 GHz ISM band is heavily used by Wi-Fi and Bluetooth and due to its heavy use services in this band are known to interfere with one another. For this reason 802.11 a/n networks are being deployed more and more in the 5 GHz band where we have 23 channels available in the US. The 5 GHz band is subdivided into several sub-bands subject to slightly different restrictions. More on this later.The 3650 to 3700 band is known as a ‘lightly licensed’ band or ‘contention band’ and only allows devices that implement contention protocol. This band was originally allocated for Wi-Fi but 802.16 (WiMAX) has also adapted its protocol to operate here. Today only WiMAX services operate in this band.Cordless phones are found in virtually all unlicensed bands, all the way up to the 5 GHz band.Ultra wide band (UWB) spans 7.5 GHz from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz. Devices in this band are restricted in signal strength to operate in the noise floor of other services. And hence UWB is relegated to short range links. In the following slides we will cover spectrum regulations and wireless services in more detail.
  • This is a high level summary of the international unlicensed band allocations starting in the 400 MHz range.No license is required to transmit in the ISM and UNII radio bands, but the equipment operating in these bands must meet regional regulatory requirements. The amount of spectrum is limited, and each band eventually fills up, forcing new users to higher bands. If you look up and down this table, you will notice the trend towards wider channels at higher frequencies. Over time, as information content gets richer, wireless services expand to higher frequencies where more spectrum is available. The 800/900 MHz band is favored by manufacturers of low cost proprietary products because this band is available world-wide opening large markets for consumer products. Recently this band has started to attract attention of vendors addressing the emerging smart metering and industrial control applications.The 2.4 and 5 GHz ISM and UNII bands enjoy broad international allocation and are heavily used by 802.11 services as well as Bluetooth.The 24 GHz ISM band is available in the US and internationally and is commonly used for speed radarsAnd the ISM spectrum in the 60 GHz region is targeted for use by the emerging short range high definition video and other applications requiring high throughput
  • Fanny Mlinarsky Octo Scope White Space Broadband10608

    1. 1. 8-June-2011 21-Jan-11 The Role of White Spaces in the Realm of Wireless Broadband Fanny Mlinarsky President octoScope, Inc. www.octoscope.com
    2. 2. 2Long Ago… Today Over the last 5 years wireless bandwidth deployed in the US has increased 553-fold. BBC broadcast George Gilder 1935 Chairman, Gilder Technology Group www.octoscope.com
    3. 3. 3TV Band Spectrum Utilization• Spectrum under 3 GHz has significant unused capacity Average occupancy over various locations studied is 5.2% and the maximum occupancy is 13.1% (in New York City) Shared Spectrum Company, NSF funded measurements, 9/2009 http://www.sharedspectrum.com/measurements• Only 8% of Americans receive broadcast TV Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) survey, 2011 http://www.cesweb.org/shared_files/ECD-TOC/CEACordCuttingAnalysis.pdf• The economic potential for the TV white spaces was estimated at $100 billion R. Thanki, “The economic value generated by current and future allocations of unlicensed spectrum”, 9/2009 http://www.ingeniousmedia.co.uk/websitefiles/Value_of_unlicensed_-_website_-_FINAL.pdf www.octoscope.com
    4. 4. 4White Spaces – Brief History• NPRM in May 2004 http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/FCC-04-113A1.pdf• November 4, 2008 FCC approved Report & Order 08-260, allowing unlicensed use of TV band spectrum http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DA-01-260A1.pdf• February 17, 2009, the FCC released the final rules for “Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Bands” http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2009/pdf/E9-3279.pdf• Sep 23, 2010 The FCC reaffirmed a 2008 decision to open the broadcast airwaves NPRM = Notice of Proposed Rule Making www.octoscope.com
    5. 5. 5European White Space Regulation• Ofcom (UK) is in the process of making this Digital Dividend band available https://mentor.ieee.org/802.18/dcn/09/18-09-0059-00-0000-ofcom-update-on-the-digital- dividend.ppt http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/consultations/geolocation/summary• ECC of CEPT in Europe has published a report on White Spaces in Jan 2011 http://www.erodocdb.dk/Docs/doc98/official/pdf/ECCREP159.PDF• China TV band regulations expected in 2015 ECC = Electronic Communications Committee CEPT = European Conference on Postal and Telecommunications www.octoscope.com
    6. 6. 6White Space Spectrum Access DB 1 DB 2 GPS Satellite Mode II Device Geolocation Source: Neal Mellen, TDK Available channels IETF PAWS DB 3 Mode I Device IETF = internet engineering task force www.octoscope.com PAWS = protocol to access white space
    7. 7. 7Spectrum Sensing Technical Challenges• Very low threshold of -114 dBm Below noise floor of most receivers Requires sophisticated averaging or other innovative techniques Averaging could be time-consuming• False detects During initial FCC testing of early spectrum sensing prototypes, the key issue was false detects – due to unreasonably low threshold Adjacent TV channel leakage can be about 30 dB above the sensing threshold• Service boundaries are not well-defined. For example, if the sensing radio is a few feet outside the boundary of the TV station region, the sensing circuitry might still detect the TV signal. Is this a failure? www.octoscope.com
    8. 8. 8TV Band Channel Availability• Channel availability based on the geolocation query of TV band internet database Source: Rick Tornado, Spectrum Bridge www.octoscope.com
    9. 9. 9TV Channels and White Space Allocation US – FCC Channel # Frequency Band Transition from 2-4 54-72 MHz NTSC to ATSC (analog to digital Fixed 5-6 76-88 MHz VHF TV) JuneTVBDs only 7-13 174-216 MHz 12, 2009 freed up channels 52- 14-20 470-512 MHz** UHF 69 (above 692 White 21-51* 512-692 MHz MHz) Spaces Europe – ECC Channel # Frequency Band 5-12 174-230 MHz VHF White 21-60 470-790 MHz Spaces UHF 61-69 790-862 MHz *Channel 37 (608-614 MHz) is reserved for radio astronomy **Shared with public safety www.octoscope.com
    10. 10. 10 TV Band Spectrum US (FCC) White Spaces European (ECC) White Spaces 54-72, 76-88, 174-216, 470-692 MHz (470-790 MHz) 0 200 400 600 800 US MHz Licensed UHFThe FCC broadband plan proposes to Low 700 MHz band Spectrumreclaim about 120MHz of spectrum from High 700 MHz bandbroadcasters and sell it to the carriers.This move may serve to discourageinvestment into white spaces. www.octoscope.com
    11. 11. 11IEEE 802 Wireless Personal GSM, WCDMA, 802.15 LTE Bluetooth Wide (3GPP* based) ZigBee 60 GHz UWB TVWS 802.22 Regional Metro 802.16 WiMAX 802.11 Wi-Fi LAN = local area networking Local PAN = personal area networking MAN = metropolitan area networking WAN = wide area networking RAN = regional area networking TVWS = television white spaces 3GPP = 3rd generation partnership project www.octoscope.com
    12. 12. 12IEEE TV Band Related Standards• 802.11af – formed in January 2010 to adapt 802.11 to TV band operation• 802.16h – originally organized to adapt 802.16 to the 3650-3700 MHz contention band now working on TV band operation of 802.16• 802.22 – Regional Area Networks Guided the FCC in the recent TV band regulations Introduced spectrum sensing and location information to determine whether given transmit frequencies and power levels will cause harmful interference to licensed services• 802.18 TAG – regulatory• 802.19 TAG – coexistence among dissimilar networks in the TV band• SCC 41 – defines layers above the MAC and PHY for dynamic spectrum access networks http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/scc41/crinfo/ 1900.7 is the relevant group under SCC 41 TAG = technical advisory group www.octoscope.com
    13. 13. 13Ecma and CogNeA TV Band Standard• Ecma TC48-TG1 standard for Personal/Portable devices in TV White Spaces Physical (PHY) and Medium Access Control (MAC) layers including a protocol and mechanisms for coexistence http://www.ecma- international.org/publications/st andards/Ecma-392.htm• Sponsor Organization: CogNeA (http://www.cognea.org) Industry alliance formed in 2008 to develop a specification for white spaces CogNeA = Cognitive Networking Alliance www.octoscope.com
    14. 14. 14802.11afDatabase isout of scopeof 802.11afBeingdefined byIETF PAWS• Re-band the popular 802.11 systems; capitalize on work already done for 802.11y and 802.11h Use 5, 10, 20 and 40 MHz wide channels FCC EIRP: 4 W, 100 mW, 50 mW• Possible deployment scenarios Indoor (< 100 m): like present WLAN Outdoor (< 5 km): comparable to the range of typical urban model IETF = internet engineering task force www.octoscope.com PAWS = protocol to access white space
    15. 15. 15 White Spaces Standards 802.11af 802.22Most cost- Most promising IEEE White Based on 802.16d Fixedeffective if Spaces standard with 802.11 WiMAX; no chipset vendors802.11 chipset vendors evaluating the involved yet; small groupchipsets business opportunity; fast dominated by broadcasterssupport the moving; Wi-Fi Alliance who oppose White Spacesband expects to certify in 2012 No products Ecma-based or proprietary expected in the near-future Proprietary implementation is SCC41Products already on the market (e.g. Higher layer cognitive radioalready www.carlsonwireless.com) ; algorithms, such as Dynamicannounced potential to disrupt 802.11 Spectrum Access; academic service since access protocol is group; no near-term products unknown expected www.octoscope.com
    16. 16. 16TV Band Technical Issues• Biggest roadblock to RF Emission Mask modified from FCC R&O 08-260 (-72.8 dBc) (Field strength in 100 kHz measured at 3 m from the CPE antenna) 802.11af adaptation is 140 the stringent spectrum 130 mask mandated by the FCC for the TV Band 120 20 dB more stringent 110 RF Mask - narrowband than the most stringent RF Mask - wideband Fied Strength (dB(uV/m) 100 RF Mask Extensions 802.11 devices support > 55 dB/TVB 90 today < 35 dB/802.11• Another issue is the 80 limit on antenna 70 elevation, which limits 60 the range of TV Band 50 data service 40 Antennas no higher than 90 feet 30 -3.5 -2.5 -1.5 -0.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 Channel Spacing www.octoscope.com
    17. 17. 17Contention Band• March 2005 FCC made available 3650 to 3700 MHz for contention-based protocol• Multiple services to share the band in an orderly way IEEE 802.11y and 802.16h adapted their protocols to coexist in this band• 300 Million licenses - one for every person or company; $300 per license for 10 years• Registered stations (base stations): 1 W/MHz, ~15 km• Unregistered stations (handsets, laptops): 40 mW/MHz, 1-1.5 km www.octoscope.com
    18. 18. 18802.11 Band – 2.4 GHz Chan Center Regulatory domains ID Frequency FCC IC ETSI Spain France Japan Japan China Hi rate 1 2412 MHz X X X - - - X X 2 2417 MHz X X X - - - X X 3 2422 MHz X X X - - - X X 4 2427 MHz X X X - - - X X 5 2432 MHz X X X - - - X X 6 2437 MHz X X X - - - X X 7 2442 MHz X X X - - - X X 8 2447 MHz X X X - - - X X 9 2452 MHz X X X - - - X X 10 2457 MHz X X X X X - X X 11 2462 MHz X X X X X - X X 12 2467 MHz - - X - X - X X 13 2472 MHz - - X - X - X X 14 2484 MHz - - - - - X - - Source: IEEE 802.11-2007 Table 18-9 US 83.5 MHz Frequency (MHz) 83.5 MHz www.octoscope.com
    19. 19. 19 802.11 Band – 5 GHz 5170 5330 5490 5710 5735 5835 MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz 108 120 124 128 153 157 161 165 100 104 132 136 140 149 112 116 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64IEEE channel # 20 MHz 40 MHz 80 MHz 160 MHz 5170 5330 5490 5710 US MHz MHz MHz MHz 480 MHz 120 124 128 132 136 140 100 104 108 112 116 48 52 56 60 64 36 40 44IEEE channel # Europe, J 20 MHz apan, Glo 40 MHz bal 80 MHz 380 MHz 160 MHz www.octoscope.com
    20. 20. 20 802.11 Spectrum – 60 GHz Channel f c (GHz) Country 1 58.32 US Channel 2 US must be 2 60.48 US, Japan, EU, Australia ~ 7 GHz supported 3 62.64 US, Japan, EU 4 64.80 Japan, EUIEEE 802.11ad is the keystandard; other EIRP: (40 dBm avg, 43 dBm peakspecifications are:802.15.3c, ECMA- in the US; 57 dBm in387, WirelessHD Europe, Japan and Australia Channel spacing = 2160MHz www.octoscope.com
    21. 21. 21The Evolution of Wireless Broadband 4G IEEE 802 LTE Wireless capacity / throughput 3G 802.16e 802.11 2G WCDMA/HSxPA GPRS Analog CDMA GSM IS-54 IS-136 TACS AMPS MIMO First cell NMT phones OFDM / OFDMA 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 OFDM/OFDMA = orthogonal frequency domain multiplexing / multiple access MIMO = multiple input multiple output www.octoscope.com
    22. 22. 22OFDM and MIMO MIMO uses multipath to increase channel capacity• OFDM transforms a frequency- and time-variable fading channel into parallel correlated flat-fading channels, enabling wide bandwidth operation … … Channel QualityFrequencyFrequency-variable channelappears flat over the narrowband of an OFDM subcarrier. OFDM = orthogonal frequency division multiplexing MIMO = multiple input multiple output www.octoscope.com
    23. 23. 23OFDM vs. OFDMA OFDM is a modulation scheme Time Time OFDMA is a modulation and access scheme Frequency Frequency allocation Frequency per user is per user is continuous dynamically allocated vs. vs. time time slots User User User User User 1 2 3 4 5 OFDM/OFDMA = orthogonal frequency domain multiplexing / multiple access www.octoscope.com
    24. 24. 24 The G’s Peak Data Rate (Mbps) G Downlink Uplink 1 Analog 19.2 kbps 2 Digital – TDMA, CDMA 14.4 kbps Improved CDMA variants (WCDMA, CDMA2000) 144 kbps (1xRTT); 3 384 kbps (UMTS); 2.4 Mbps (EVDO)3.5 HSPA (today) 14 Mbps 2 Mbps HSPA (Release 7) DL 64QAM or 2x2 MIMO; UL 16QAM 28 Mbps 11.5 Mbps3.75 HSPA (Release 8) DL 64QAM and 2x2 MIMO 42 Mbps 11.5 Mbps WiMAX Release 1.0 TDD (2:1 UL/DL ratio), 10 MHz channel 40 Mbps 10 Mbps3.9 LTE, FDD 5 MHz UL/DL, 2 Layers DL 43.2 Mbps 21.6 Mbps LTE CAT-3 100 Mbps 50 Mbps OFDM Maximum LTE data rates in the 20 MHz channel are 326 Mbps DL (4 streams), 172 Mbps UL (2 streams) www.octoscope.com
    25. 25. 25HSPA and HSPA+• HSPA+ is aimed at extending operators’ investment in HSPA 2x2 MIMO, 64 QAM in the downlink, 16 QAM in the uplink Data rates up to 42 MB in the downlink and 11.5 MB in the uplink. Traditional One tunnel One tunnel HSPA HSPA HSPA+ One-tunnel GGSN GGSN Gateway GGSN architecture GPRS flattens the Control Support network by Data Serving Node enabling a direct SGSN GPRS SGSN SGSN transport path for Support Node user data between Radio RNC RNC and the RNC Network Controller GGSN, thus User minimizing delays RNC Data and set-up time Node B Node B Node B HSPA+ is CDMA-based and lacks the efficiency of OFDM www.octoscope.com
    26. 26. 26 LTE EPS (Evolved Packet System) HSS SGSN GPRS Core Trusted MME EPS Access Gateway PCRF Serving gateway PDN gateway IP ServicesSGSN (Serving GPRS (IMS)Support Node)PCRF (policy and Trustedcharging rules function) Non-HSS (Home Subscriber Wi-Fi 3GPPServer)MME (Mobility eNode-B Non- Trusted non-3GPP IP AccessManagement Entity) Trusted (CDMA, TD-SCDMA, WiMAX)PDN (Public DataNetwork) Flat, low-latency architecture www.octoscope.com
    27. 27. 27 Japan USA• 3GPP = 3rd generation partnership project• Partnership of 6 regional standards groups that translate 3GPP specifications to regional standards• LTE = long term evolution www.octoscope.com
    28. 28. 28FDD vs. TDD• FDD (frequency division duplex) Paired channels• TDD (time division duplex) TD-LTE Single frequency channel for uplink an downlink Is more flexible than FDD in its proportioning of uplink vs. downlink bandwidth utilization Can ease spectrum allocation issues DL UL DL UL www.octoscope.com
    29. 29. 29LTE Frequency Bands - FDD Source: 3GPP TS 36.104; V10.1.0 (2010-12)Band Uplink (UL) Downlink (DL) Regions 1 1920 -1980 MHz 2110 - 2170 MHz Europe, Asia 2 1850 -1910 MHz 1930 - 1990 MHz Americas, Asia 3 1710 -1785 MHz 1805 -1880 MHz Europe, Asia, Americas 4 1710 -1755 MHz 2110 - 2155 MHz Americas 5 824-849 MHz 869 - 894 MHz Americas 6 830 - 840 MHz 875 - 885 MHz Japan 7 2500 - 2570 MHz 2620 - 2690 MHz Europe, Asia 8 880 - 915 MHz 925 - 960 MHz Europe, Asia 9 1749.9 - 1784.9 MHz 1844.9 - 1879.9 MHz Japan 10 1710 -1770 MHz 2110 - 2170 MHz Americas 11 1427.9 - 1452.9 MHz 1475.9 - 1500.9 MHz Japan 12 698 - 716 MHz 728 - 746 MHz Americas 13 777 - 787 MHz 746 - 756 MHz Americas (Verizon) 14 788 - 798 MHz 758 - 768 MHz Americas (D-Block, public safety) 17 704 - 716 MHz 734 - 746 MHz Americas (AT&T) 18 815 – 830 MHz 860 – 875 MHz 19 830 – 845 MHz 875 – 890 MHz 20 832 – 862 MHz 791 – 821 MHz 21 1447.9 – 1462.9 MHz 1495.9 – 1510.9 MHz www.octoscope.com
    30. 30. 30 CH 52-59, 692-746 MHz A B C D E A B C UHF Spectrum, Including White Space Bands Band17 Band17 Band12 Band12 Low 700 MHz band US (FCC) White Spaces European (ECC) White 54-72, 76-88, 174-216, 470-692 MHz Spaces (470-790 MHz) 0 200 400 600 800 MHz High 700 MHz band A B A B CH 60-69, 746-806 MHz www.octoscope.comECC = Electronic Communications Committee
    31. 31. 31 High 700 MHz Band D-Block MHz 758 763 775 788 793 805Band 13 Band 13 Band 14 Band 14 Guard band Guard band Public Safety Broadband (763-768, 793-798 MHz) Public Safety Narrowband (769-775, 799-805 MHz), local LMR www.octoscope.com LMR = land mobile radio
    32. 32. 32LTE Frequency Bands - TDD TD-LTE Band UL and DL Regions 33 1900 - 1920 MHz Europe, Asia (not Japan) 34 2010 - 2025 MHz Europe, Asia 35 1850 - 1910 MHz 36 1930 - 1990 MHz 37 1910 - 1930 MHz 38 2570 - 2620 MHz Europe 39 1880 - 1920 MHz China 40 2300 – 2400 MHz Europe, Asia 41 2496 – 2690 MHz Americas (Clearwire LTE) 42 3400 – 3600 MHz 43 3600 – 3800 MHz Source: 3GPP TS 36.104; V10.1.0 (2010-12) www.octoscope.com
    33. 33. 33WiMAX Frequency Bands - TDDBand (GHz) Bandwidth Certification Group CodeClass BW (MHZ) (BCG)1 2.3-2.4 8.75 1.A 5 AND 10 1.B WiMAX Forum2 2.305-2.320, 2.345-2.360 Mobile 3.5 2.A (Obsolete, replaced by 2.D) Certification Profile 5 2.B (Obsolete, replaced by 2.D) v1.1.0 10 2.C (Obsolete, replaced by 2.D) A universal 3.5 AND 5 AND 10 2.D frequency step3 2.496-2.69 size of 250 KHz is 5 AND 10 3.A recommended for4 3.3-3.4 all band 5 4.A classes, while 200 7 4.B KHz step size is 10 4.C also5 3.4-3.8 recommended for 5 5.A band class 3 in 7 5.B Europe. 10 5.C7 0.698-0.862 5 AND 7 AND 10 7.A 8 MHz 7.F www.octoscope.com
    34. 34. 34WiMAX Frequency Bands - FDDBand (GHz)BW (MHZ) Duplexing Mode Duplexing Mode MS Transmit Band (MHz) BS Transmit Band BandwidthClass BS MS (MHz) Certification Group Code (BCG)2 2.305-2.320, 2.345-2.360 2x3.5 AND 2x5 AND 2x10 FDD HFDD 2345-2360 2305-2320 2.E** 5 UL, 10 DL FDD HFDD 2345-2360 2305-2320 2.F**3 2.496-2.690 2x5 AND 2x10 FDD HFDD 2496-2572 2614-2690 3.B5 3.4-3.8 2x5 AND 2x7 AND 2x10 FDD HFDD 3400-3500 3500-3600 5.D6 1.710-2.170 FDD 2x5 AND 2x10 FDD HFDD 1710-1770 2110-2170 6.A 2x5 AND 2x10 AND FDD HFDD 1920-1980 2110-2170 6.B Optional 2x20 MHz 2x5 AND 2x10 MHz FDD HFDD 1710-1785 1805-1880 6.C7 0.698-0.960 2x5 AND 2x10 FDD HFDD 776-787 746-757 7.B 2x5 FDD HFDD 788-793 AND 793-798 758-763 AND 763-768 7.C 2x10 FDD HFDD 788-798 758-768 7.D 5 AND 7 AND 10 (TDD), TDD or FDD Dual Mode TDD/H- 698-862 698-862 7.E* 2x5 AND 2x7 AND 2x10 (H-FDD) FDD 2x5 AND 2x10 MHz FDD HFDD 880-915 925-960 7.G8 1.710-2.170 TDD 5 AND 10 TDD TDD 1785-1805, 1880-1920, 1785-1805, 1880-1920, 8.A 1910-1930, 2010-2025 1910-1930, 2010-2025WiMAX Forum Mobile Certification Profile R1 5 v1.3.0 www.octoscope.com
    35. 35. 35 Unlicensed Bands and Services IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) operates in the ISM-2400 and ISM-5800 bands and IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) operates in in the 5800 UNII band; recently the UNII/ISM band and in the 3500- standardized for 3650-3700 3700 MHz contention band contention band UWB based WiMedia is a short- range network operating in the noise floor of other servicesISM-900 traditionally used forconsumer devices such as cordlessphones, garage openers and babymonitors, now also used on smart Cordless phonesmeters Standards-based proprietary FCC spectrum allocation chart http://www.ntia.doc.gov/osmhome/allochrt.PDF www.octoscope.com
    36. 36. 36 Unlicensed Bands and Services Medical devices Frequency range Bandwidth Band Notes Remote control 433.05 – 434.79 MHz 1.74 MHz ISM Europe RFID and otherTVB 420–450 MHz 30 MHz Amateur US unlicensed services 868-870 MHz 2 MHz ISM Europe Smart meters, remote control, baby 902–928 MHz 26 MHz ISM-900 Region 2 monitors, cordless phones 2.4–2.5 GHz 100 MHz ISM-2400 802.11b/g/n, Bluetooth International 802.15.4 (Bluetooth, 5.15–5.35 GHz 200 MHz UNII-1,2 ZigBee), cordless phones allocations 5.47–5.725 GHz 255 MHz UNII-2 ext. (see slides 7, 8 for details) 802.11a/n, cordless phones ISM-5800 5.725–5.875 GHz 150 MHz UNII-3 24–24.25 GHz 250 MHz ISM US, Europe 57-64 GHz US Emerging 802.11ad 7 GHz ISM 802.15.3c, ECMA-387 59-66 GHz Europe WirelessHD Americas, including US and Canada; Australia, Israel European analog of ISM = industrial, scientific and medical the ISM-900 band UNII = unlicensed national information infrastructure www.octoscope.com
    37. 37. 37Summary• Wireless broadband industry will likely get some of the TV band spectrum• Will it be licensed or unlicensed?• For success of unlicensed White Spaces, significant bandwidth is needed with low barriers for inexpensive consumer technology (e.g. relaxed out of band emissions; simple rules) www.octoscope.com
    38. 38. 38For More Information• White papers, presentations, articles and test reports on a variety of wireless topics www.octoscope.com www.octoscope.com
    39. 39. 39White Space – Key FCC Documents• FCC 08-260 2nd Report and Order and Memorandum Opinion and Order http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/FCC-08-260A1.pdf• FCC DA-09-20 Erratum http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-287799A1.pdf• FCC 10-174 2nd Memorandum Opinion and Order http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/FCC-10-174A1.pdf• FCC Doc 302279 Erratum http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-302279A1.pdf• FCC 10-16 Report and Order and Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/FCC-10-16A1.pdf• Consolidation of above documents: https://mentor.ieee.org/802.11/dcn/11/11-11-0067-00-00af-fcc-tvws-orders-jan-11- consolidated-text.pdf www.octoscope.com

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