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Testing NodeJS
(with Mocha, Should, Sinon, & JSCoverage)
Michael Lilley
michael.lilley@gmail.com
Melbourne NodeJS Meetup Group
Wednesday, 28 August 2013
Accompanying Sample Repository - https://github.com/mlilley/testing_nodejs_with_mocha.git
Which Framework?
• Popular
• Decent high level features
• Highly configurable to suit many tastes
• Been around for almost 2 years
• Can run in the browser also
Why Mocha?
Setting Up
1. Install mocha module
$ npm install mocha
2. Choose and install your assertion library (we’ll use should)
$ npm install should
3. Create a directory for your tests
$ mkdir test
Setting Up
REPORTER = dot
test:
@NODE_ENV=test ./node_modules/.bin/mocha
--reporter $(REPORTER) 
test-w:
@NODE_ENV=test ./node_modules/.bin/mocha 
--reporter $(REPORTER) 
--watch
.PHONY: test test-w
4. Create your Makefile
Remember the tabs!
Setting Up
{
...
"scripts": {
"test": "make test"
}
...
}
5. Configure package.json
Code To Be Tested
var Adder = exports.Adder = function() {};
Adder.prototype.add = function(a, b) {
return a + b;
};
sync_adder.js
var Adder = exports.Adder = function() {};
Adder.prototype.add = function(a, b, callback) {
setTimeout(function() {
callback(a + b);
}, 100);
};
async_adder.js
Tests - Synchronous
var should = require('should');
var Adder = require('../sync_adder').Adder;
describe('Synchronous Adder', function() {
describe('add()', function() {
it('should return 3 when adding 1 and 2', function() {
var adder = new Adder();
adder.add(1, 2).should.equal(3);
});
});
});
test/sync_adder.js
• NB: or use mocha option ‘--require’ to automatically require common deps (ie: Should)
Tests - Asynchronous
test/async_adder.js
• If done() not called, test fails • Default timeout is 2,000 ms
• Adjust with this.timeout(x)
var should = require('should');
var Adder = require('../async_adder').Adder;
describe('Asynchronous Adder', function() {
describe('add()', function() {
it('should callback with 3 when adding 1 and 2', function(done) {
var adder = new Adder();
adder.add(1, 2, function(result) {
result.should.equal(3);
done();
});
});
});
});
Hooks
• before(fn), after(fn), beforeEach(fn), afterEach(fn)
• Use within describe() at any nesting level
• Use outside describe() for global scope
• after/afterEach run on test fail too (unless --bail)
Should DSL
x.should.be.ok
x.should.be.true
x.should.be.false
x.should.be.empty
x.should.be.within(y,z)
x.should.be.a(y)
x.should.be[.an].instanceOf(y)
x.should.be.above(n)
x.should.be.below(n)
x.should.eql(y)
x.should.equal(y)
x.should.match(/y/)
x.should.have.length(y)
x.should.have.property(prop[, val])
x.should.have.ownProperty(prop[, val])
x.should.have.status(code)
x.should.have.header(field[, val])
x.should.include(y)
x.should.throw([string|/regexp/])
// truthiness
// === true
// === false
// length == 0
// range
// typeof
// instanceOf
// > val
// < val
// ==
// ===
// regexp match
// .length == y
// prop exists
// prop exists (immediate)
// .statusCode == y
// .header with field & val
// x.indexOf(y) != -1
// thrown exception
Negation:
• x.should.not.be.ok
Chaining:
• x.should.be.a(‘string’).and.have.length(5)
Implementation:
• should added to Object as property
• Therefore x must not be null or undefined
• Use should.exist(x) to test first where
needed.
Running Tests
• Run your tests
$ make test
or $ npm test
or $ ./node_modules/.bin/mocha <options> <path|files>
• Run your tests automatically when files change
$ make test-w
• Run multiple test suites / partial suite / specific tests
– Specify desired file or directory on cmd line
– Use “tagging” and --grep feature
• Tag test names with some unique string (ie “@slow” or “#API” or “APP”)
• Pass cmd line option --grep <pattern>
• Run Mocha programatically for more control
Mocha Configurability
• Change assertion library (require(…))
– Should, expect.js, Chai, Expectations, better-assert, Node’s assert lib, etc
• Change interface (--ui flag)
– for BDD style: describe, it, before, after, beforeEach, afterEach.
– for TDD style: suite, test, setup, teardown.
– others
• Change output Reporter (--reporter flag)
– For different styles of terminal output
– For output of docs (html, xml, documentation, …)
– For feeding into other programs (test coverage, …)
• … and more …
Sinon
• Sinon
– APIs for spies, stubs, mocks, and utils
– Framework agnostic
– To use:
• $ npm install sinon
• var sinon = require(‘sinon’);
– Don’t include via --require because need access to exports
Test Coverage
1. Install node-jscoverage binary
$ git clone https://github.com/visionmedia/node-jscoverage.git
$ ./configure && make && make install
2. Adjust Makefile to:
– invoke jscoverage on source to produce instrumented version
– run mocha on instrumented source with html-cov reporter to ourput coverage report.
...
test-cov: lib-cov
@MYPROJ_COVERAGE=1 $(MAKE) test REPORTER=html-cov > coverage.html
lib-cov:
@jscoverage lib lib-cov
...
Test Coverage
3. Adjust project structure (see example repo)
– index.js conditionally requires normal or instrumented source based on env var set in
makefile
module.exports = process.env.MYPROJ_COVERAGE
? require('./lib-cov/myproj')
: require('./lib/myproj')
4. Run it
$ make test-cov
For more…
• Mocha - http://visionmedia.github.io/mocha/
• Mocha Wiki - https://github.com/visionmedia/mocha/wiki
• Should - https://github.com/visionmedia/should.js/
• Sinon - http://sinonjs.org/
• Node-JSCoverage - https://github.com/visionmedia/node-jscoverage

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Testing NodeJS with Mocha, Should, Sinon, and JSCoverage

  • 1. Testing NodeJS (with Mocha, Should, Sinon, & JSCoverage) Michael Lilley michael.lilley@gmail.com Melbourne NodeJS Meetup Group Wednesday, 28 August 2013 Accompanying Sample Repository - https://github.com/mlilley/testing_nodejs_with_mocha.git
  • 3. • Popular • Decent high level features • Highly configurable to suit many tastes • Been around for almost 2 years • Can run in the browser also Why Mocha?
  • 4. Setting Up 1. Install mocha module $ npm install mocha 2. Choose and install your assertion library (we’ll use should) $ npm install should 3. Create a directory for your tests $ mkdir test
  • 5. Setting Up REPORTER = dot test: @NODE_ENV=test ./node_modules/.bin/mocha --reporter $(REPORTER) test-w: @NODE_ENV=test ./node_modules/.bin/mocha --reporter $(REPORTER) --watch .PHONY: test test-w 4. Create your Makefile Remember the tabs!
  • 6. Setting Up { ... "scripts": { "test": "make test" } ... } 5. Configure package.json
  • 7. Code To Be Tested var Adder = exports.Adder = function() {}; Adder.prototype.add = function(a, b) { return a + b; }; sync_adder.js var Adder = exports.Adder = function() {}; Adder.prototype.add = function(a, b, callback) { setTimeout(function() { callback(a + b); }, 100); }; async_adder.js
  • 8. Tests - Synchronous var should = require('should'); var Adder = require('../sync_adder').Adder; describe('Synchronous Adder', function() { describe('add()', function() { it('should return 3 when adding 1 and 2', function() { var adder = new Adder(); adder.add(1, 2).should.equal(3); }); }); }); test/sync_adder.js • NB: or use mocha option ‘--require’ to automatically require common deps (ie: Should)
  • 9. Tests - Asynchronous test/async_adder.js • If done() not called, test fails • Default timeout is 2,000 ms • Adjust with this.timeout(x) var should = require('should'); var Adder = require('../async_adder').Adder; describe('Asynchronous Adder', function() { describe('add()', function() { it('should callback with 3 when adding 1 and 2', function(done) { var adder = new Adder(); adder.add(1, 2, function(result) { result.should.equal(3); done(); }); }); }); });
  • 10. Hooks • before(fn), after(fn), beforeEach(fn), afterEach(fn) • Use within describe() at any nesting level • Use outside describe() for global scope • after/afterEach run on test fail too (unless --bail)
  • 11. Should DSL x.should.be.ok x.should.be.true x.should.be.false x.should.be.empty x.should.be.within(y,z) x.should.be.a(y) x.should.be[.an].instanceOf(y) x.should.be.above(n) x.should.be.below(n) x.should.eql(y) x.should.equal(y) x.should.match(/y/) x.should.have.length(y) x.should.have.property(prop[, val]) x.should.have.ownProperty(prop[, val]) x.should.have.status(code) x.should.have.header(field[, val]) x.should.include(y) x.should.throw([string|/regexp/]) // truthiness // === true // === false // length == 0 // range // typeof // instanceOf // > val // < val // == // === // regexp match // .length == y // prop exists // prop exists (immediate) // .statusCode == y // .header with field & val // x.indexOf(y) != -1 // thrown exception Negation: • x.should.not.be.ok Chaining: • x.should.be.a(‘string’).and.have.length(5) Implementation: • should added to Object as property • Therefore x must not be null or undefined • Use should.exist(x) to test first where needed.
  • 12. Running Tests • Run your tests $ make test or $ npm test or $ ./node_modules/.bin/mocha <options> <path|files> • Run your tests automatically when files change $ make test-w • Run multiple test suites / partial suite / specific tests – Specify desired file or directory on cmd line – Use “tagging” and --grep feature • Tag test names with some unique string (ie “@slow” or “#API” or “APP”) • Pass cmd line option --grep <pattern> • Run Mocha programatically for more control
  • 13. Mocha Configurability • Change assertion library (require(…)) – Should, expect.js, Chai, Expectations, better-assert, Node’s assert lib, etc • Change interface (--ui flag) – for BDD style: describe, it, before, after, beforeEach, afterEach. – for TDD style: suite, test, setup, teardown. – others • Change output Reporter (--reporter flag) – For different styles of terminal output – For output of docs (html, xml, documentation, …) – For feeding into other programs (test coverage, …) • … and more …
  • 14. Sinon • Sinon – APIs for spies, stubs, mocks, and utils – Framework agnostic – To use: • $ npm install sinon • var sinon = require(‘sinon’); – Don’t include via --require because need access to exports
  • 15. Test Coverage 1. Install node-jscoverage binary $ git clone https://github.com/visionmedia/node-jscoverage.git $ ./configure && make && make install 2. Adjust Makefile to: – invoke jscoverage on source to produce instrumented version – run mocha on instrumented source with html-cov reporter to ourput coverage report. ... test-cov: lib-cov @MYPROJ_COVERAGE=1 $(MAKE) test REPORTER=html-cov > coverage.html lib-cov: @jscoverage lib lib-cov ...
  • 16. Test Coverage 3. Adjust project structure (see example repo) – index.js conditionally requires normal or instrumented source based on env var set in makefile module.exports = process.env.MYPROJ_COVERAGE ? require('./lib-cov/myproj') : require('./lib/myproj') 4. Run it $ make test-cov
  • 17. For more… • Mocha - http://visionmedia.github.io/mocha/ • Mocha Wiki - https://github.com/visionmedia/mocha/wiki • Should - https://github.com/visionmedia/should.js/ • Sinon - http://sinonjs.org/ • Node-JSCoverage - https://github.com/visionmedia/node-jscoverage