DefinitionIn the visual arts, texture is the perceived surface quality of a work ofart. It is an element of two-dimensional and three-dimensional designand is distinguished by its perceived visual and physical properties. Useof texture, along with other elements of design, can convey a variety ofmessages and emotions.
2D TEXTURESPhysical or tactile texuresPhysical texture, also known as actual texture or tactile texture, are the actualvariations upon a surface. This can include, but is not limited to, fur, woodgrain, sand, smooth surface of canvas or metal, , glass, and leather. Itdifferentiates itself from visual texture by having a physical quality that can befelt by touch.
Specific use of a texture can effect the smoothness that an artwork conveys. Forinstance, use of rough surfaces can be visually active, whilst smooth surfaces canbe visually restful. The use of both can give a sense of personality to a design, orbe utilized to create emphasis, rhythm, contrast, etc.
Light is an important factor for physical artwork, because it can affect how a surfaceis viewed. Strong lights on a smooth surface can obscure the readability of adrawing or photograph, while they can create strong contrasts in a highly texturedsurface such as moose or pigs.
Visual TexturesVisual texture is the illusion of having physical texture. Every material and every supportsurface has its own visual texture and needs to be taken into consideration before creatinga composition. As such, materials such as canvas and watercolour paper are considerablyrougher than, for example, photo-quality computer paper and may not be best suited tocreating a flat, smooth texture. Photography, drawings and paintings use visual texture bothto portray their subject matter realistically and with interpretation. Texture in these mediaare generally created by the repetition of shape and line.Implied texture is a visual texture that has no basis in everyday reality. It is most oftenutilized in works of abstraction.
Another classification could be ...Natural textures and Artificial texturesNatural textures are textures that can be found in nature. The wood from treetrunks, stones, grass, leaves, seashellls..Artificial textures are made or transformed by man; furniture, bricks, industrialobjects, machines...
There are many diferent techniques to create textures, but we willexperiment with two of them: ● Collage technique ● Frottage technique The composition on the left is made with the collage technique and in the picture above there is a man experimenting with de frottage technique
CollageA collage (From the French: coller, to glue) is a work of formal art,primarily in the visual arts, made from an assemblage of differentforms, thus creating a new whole.A collage may include newspaper clippings, ribbons, bits of coloredor hand-made papers, portions of other artwork or texts, photographsand other found objects, glued to a piece of paper or canvas. Theorigins of collage can be traced back hundreds of years, but thistechnique made a dramatic reappearance in the early 20th century asan art form of novelty.
Here are two exemples obtanied by the collage technique:
Frottage In art, frottage (from French frotter, "to rub") is a surrealist and "automatic" method of creative production developed by Max Ernst. In frottage the artist takes a pencil or other drawing tool and makes a rubbing over a textured surface. The drawing can be left as is or used as the basis for further refinement. While superficially similar to brass rubbing and other forms of rubbing intended to reproduce an existing subject, and in fact sometimes being used as an alternate term for it, frottage differs in being aleatoric and random in nature. It was developed by Ernst in 1925. Ernst was inspired by an ancient wooden floor where the grain of the planks had been accentuated by many years of scrubbing. The patterns of the graining suggested strange images to him. He captured these by laying sheets of paper on the floor and then rubbing over them with a soft pencil.