Why Do We Eat?
Current Trends in Nutrition
Rangers Ballpark Promote All You Can Eat
Advertising: Conflicting Messages
Our Pets are getting fatter, too!
FACTS: The U.S. Diet is
too high in…
…saturated fat, placing many Americans at an
increased risk for atherosclerosis, CHD, obesity,
and Type II diabetes.
…sugar, resulting in risk for developing Type II
diabetes and obesity.
…sodium, resulting in high blood pressure
FACTS: The U.S. Diet is Lacking
…fruit and vegetable intake, also resulting in lack
of fiber intake. Nearly half of all people living in
the U.S. eat no fruit and almost a fourth eat no
is problem in U.S.
What is Good Nutrition?
Proper nutrition means: Your diet is supplying all
the essential nutrients to carry out normal
tissue growth, repair, and maintenance; your
diet is also providing nutrients necessary for
physical activity, work and relaxation.
What are Essential Nutrients?
- Carbohydrates (4calories/gram)
- Fats (9 calories/gram)
- Protein (4 calories/gram)
- Water (zero calories)
- Vitamins (zero calories)
- Minerals (zero calories)
**Alcohol (7 calories/gram)
What is a calorie?
A unit of energy;
The amount of energy or heat necessary to raise
one gram of water 1 degree Centigrade.
We measure the energy value of food and the
cost of physical activity in calories.
Foods can be classified as high-nutrient density,
meaning high in nutrients, low or moderate in
calories; Example: Broccoli, Spinach, Carrots
OR low-nutrient density, meaning low in
nutrients, but high in calories, thus termed,
“junk foods”-French Fries, chips
- Each gram of carbohydrate provides the
body with 4 calories (4cal/g.)
- Main energy source; provides body energy
for work, cell maintenance, and heat.
- Carbohydrates help to regulate fat and
- Should comprise 45-65% of daily caloric
intake (1/2 of this = whole
Major Sources of Carbohydrates
1. Simple (ex: candy, soda, cake)
a. monosaccharides b. disaccharides
2. Complex (ex: starches found in seeds,
corn, nuts, grains, roots, potatoes and
a. Starches b. Dextrins c. Glycogens
Commonly known as SUGARS (candy, soda,
cake) – less than 25% of carbohydrate
1. Monosaccharides (glucose, fructose,
2. Dissaccharides (sucrose, lactose,
Starches: Commonly found in seeds, nuts, corn, grains,
roots, potatoes, and legumes.
Dextrins: Formed from breakdown of large starch
molecules exposed to dry heat such as baked bread
or cold cereal production.
Glycogen: Animal polysaccaride synthesized from
glucose and found in small amounts in meat.
A complex form of carbohydrate.
Fiber gives a feeling of fullness without
Fiber decreases the risk of cardiovascular
disease and certain cancers.
Soluble vs. Insoluble FIBER
Classified according to solubility in water.
Soluble: Dissolves in water, forming a gel-
like substance that encloses food
particles, allowing it to bind and excrete
fats from the body.
Sources: Oats (oatmeal), fruits, barley, and
legumes). Helps improve cholesterol
(protective against heart disease) and
blood sugar levels.
Insoluble: Not easily dissolved in water –
body cannot digest this form.
Sources: Skins of fruits, plant leaves, roots,
More on FIBER
- Processing and refining foods removes almost
all of the natural fiber.
-Saturated fats often take the place of fiber in
the American diet, which increases the
absorption and formation of cholesterol.
Constipation, diverticulitis, hemorrhoids, gallblad
der disease and obesity are all linked with diets
low in Fiber.
Skins of fruit)
21-25 grams for women/day
31-38 grams for men/day
(6-11 Servings of fruits and veggies
Most Americans eat only 10-12 grams/day!
In contrast-China-up to 77 grams per day!
Carbohydrates: How Much
Should I Eat?
Should comprise 45-65% of daily caloric intake.
½ of those should be whole grains & beans
A measure of how fast and how far blood sugar
rises after eating a carbohydrate.
Example: White Bread = High Glycemic
Index/ Blood sugar spikes rapidly
Versus: Brown Rice = Low Glycemic Index –
slow, gentle rise in blood