AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION                             VOL. 32 NO. 2                              FEBRUARY...
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AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION                                                    PA TIMES • FEBRUARY 2009    ...
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AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION                                                                  PA TIMES • FEB...
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
Restructuring Human Resources
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  1. 1. AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION VOL. 32 NO. 2 FEBRUARY 2009 INSIDE: PA TIMES PA TIMES IMMIGRATION: ISSUES IMPACTING ADMINISTRATION Local Immigration Policies Complicate Comprehensive Immigration Reform Efforts 3 32 Years • 1977-2009 A Powerful Voice for Public Service . . . Seemingly everyone agrees on the need for immigration reform. Democrats and Republicans, liberals President Obama Takes Historic Oath and conservatives, media pundits and scholars, those who want more open borders and those who advocate more restrictive policies have all January 20, 2009–Washington, identified shortcomings with current D.C.–During the Nation’s 56th federal policies and practices.–Nadia Presidential Inauguration, Barack Rubaii-Barrett Obama takes the oath of office as the 44th U.S. President with his Illegal Medical Care and wife, Michelle and daughters License Registration? 4 Malia and Sasha at his side. The change in administration in Michele Obama holds the Bible Washington will certainly be used by President Abraham confronted with the pressing issues Lincoln. Obama, America's first facing our nation: The economy, African-American resident, said in bailouts, jobless rates climbing, and his inaugural address that the the illegal immigration issues. Two of nation must choose 'hope over the areas of concern for public fear, unity of purpose over administrators will be focusing on conflict and discord' to overcome whether to provide health care benefits and license registrations to the worst economic crisis since illegal immigrants living in the the Great Depression. (J. Conrad United States.–David Milen Williams Jr./Newsday/ZUMAPRESS.com) Immigration’s Moral Challenge 5 Unfortunately, when institutions are unjust, or worse, many people working within them fail to perceive what is happening. Unexamined prejudices squelch doubts, as does the deep-seated emotional stake that people, especially Americans, have in Experts Sound Alarm Over believing that the social order around Bergrud Wins them is morally defensible. –Christopher Daniel ASPA Election! America's Ability to Compete Some Personal Reflections on Immigration 6 I was born in San Diego, CA. My Recommendations Offered for Improving mother is from Mexico and my father is from Costa Rica, Central America. My parents immigrated to the United Competitiveness of U.S. Education System States in the 1960s. My father became a naturalized U.S. citizen while my Washington, DC–Underscoring the link action and outlines what states and the mother is a permanent resident with a between a world-class education and a federal government must do to ensure U.S. Green Card that serves as proof of her sound U.S. economy, leading education students receive a world-class education legal resident status in the United experts issued a report offering sweeping that provides expanded opportunities for States.–Abraham David Benavides recommendations to internationally college and career success. Insights on Perf. Mgmt. 7 benchmark educational performance. The Advisory Group was convened by three Solutions for Public Managers 9 The report, quot;Benchmarking for Success: of the nation’s leading education policy Ensuring U.S. Students Receive a World- organizations–the National Governors An Ethics Moment 12 class Educationquot; released by the Association, Council of Chief State School Where Things Stand 13 International Benchmarking Advisory Officers and Achieve, Inc.–and consists of Mayors Say Local Group,provides states a roadmap for governors, state commissioners of education, ASPA TIMES benchmarking their K-12 education systems representatives from the business community, against those of top-performing nations. Infrastructure Bergrud Elected The report explains the urgent need for See EDUCATION, pg. 2 ASPA Vice President 15 Projects are ASPA National Council Tips for Local Governments on Election Results 15 Ready-To-Go PRESIDENT’S COLUMN 16 How to Navigate Fiscal Crisis New Members 18 Action Urged on MainStreet ASPA in Brief 19 Economic Recovery Report Gives Strategies for Local Governments to Address Crisis Career Center 22-23 Washington, DC–The nation’s mayors today Washington, DC/Phoenix, AZ–Cities, towns, Leaders,” analyzes previous recessions and Congressional Testimony 24 released the third installment of their and counties throughout the United States highlights the actions local governments Ready-to-Go Jobs Report that inventories Recruiter 25 face the deepest and most severe economic have taken to alleviate such crises in the infrastructure projects from cities around the downturn in 50 years. For the first time in past. Commissioned by ICMA, the organiza- country that could be started and completed Commentary 26 in just two calendar years to create over a the postwar era, the crisis has dramatically tion that advances professional local govern- Conferences Calendar 28 million jobs with help from federal dollars. affected all levels of government, and ment management worldwide; and extraordinary action is required to maintain developed by researchers at the Alliance for Mayors are reporting that in 641 cities of critical public services in the face of Innovation (a partnership of ICMA, the all sizes in all regions of the country, a dwindling revenues. Innovation Groups, and Arizona State total of 15,221 local infrastructure projects For more information on how to be University), the report explains how many published in PA TIMES, please contact are quot;ready to go.quot; These projects represent A new report, “Navigating the Fiscal Crisis: Christine Jewett McCrehin at Tested Strategies for Local Government cjewett@aspanet.org. See LOCAL GOVERNMENT, pg. 12 See INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS, pg. 2
  2. 2. PAGE 2 PA TIMES • FEBRUARY 2009 AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Report Calls for State and Federal Action on Education System Success is a call to action and provides a tional context to ensure that students are made progress on racial achievement gaps From EDUCATION, pg. 1 receiving the education they need to clear path to follow.quot; since 1999. compete in the 21st century economy. researchers, former federal officials and The Advisory Group identified five As recently as 1995, America still tied for current state and local officials. transformative steps American education quot;The world will always recognize talent, first in the percentage of college-age needs to undergo to produce more no matter where it resides. To be globally people who obtain a bachelor’s degree; International benchmarking will help state globally competitive students: competitive and ensure long term however, by 2006, the country had policymakers identify the qualities and economic growth, all U.S. students need dropped to 14th. That same year the characteristics of education systems that • Upgrade state standards by adopting a an internationally benchmarked college- United States had the highest college best prepare students for success in the common core of internationally and career-ready education,quot; said Craig dropout rate of 19 industrialized countries. global marketplace. Understanding these benchmarked standards in math and Barrett, Chairman of the Board at Intel intricacies will provide state leaders the language arts for grades K-12; In addition to the actions above, the report Corporation. quot;We must do better for our insights necessary to ensure U.S. students reiterates the importance of a strong state- • Leverage states’ collective influence to students. They need strong content are receiving a world-class education and federal partnership for improving U.S. ensure textbooks, digital media, curricula knowledge, especially in mathematics and provide students with expanded opportu- competitiveness and offers suggestions for and assessments are aligned to interna- science, critical thinking, problem solving nities for college and career success. how the federal government can support tionally benchmarked standards and draw and communications skills to innovate and incentivize states’ international on lessons from high-performing nations; quot;We are now living in a world without and create solutions for the complex benchmarking efforts. borders, and in order to maintain challenges of the 21st century.quot; • Revise state policies for recruiting, America’s competitive edge into the The Advisory Group’s expertise and preparing, developing and supporting International benchmarking is crucial for future we need students who are prepared experience helped identify the need for teachers and school leaders to reflect the the United States to remain competitive to compete not only with their American international comparisons and provided quot;human capitalquot; practices of top-perform- on a global scale. The U.S. is losing its peers, but with students from all across guidance for benchmarking state ing nations and states around the world; historic edge in educational attainment the globe for the jobs of tomorrow,quot; said education system practices in areas such and international assessments routinely • Hold schools and systems accountable Georgia Gov. Sonny Perdue, co-chair of as standards, accountability, educator show America behind other nations. through monitoring, interventions and the Advisory Group. workforce and assessments. The Advisory support to ensure consistently high In the most recent Trends in International Group is also co-chaired by Arizona Gov. quot;The time is now–we must ensure that our performance, drawing upon international Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Janet Napolitano, Georgia Gov. Sonny students are prepared to compete and best practices; and released earlier this month, U.S. eighth Perdue and Craig Barrett, chair of the innovate in the 21st century,quot; said Arizona graders were significantly outscored by board at Intel Corporation. • Measure state-level education perform- Gov. Janet Napolitano, co-chair of the peers in five nations in mathematics and ance globally by examining student Advisory Group. quot;Benchmarking for For more information, visit www.nga.org. nine nations in science. The U.S. has not achievement and attainment in an interna- Local Infrastructure Projects Could Provide Jobs for Over a Million As an organization that represents mayors • Green Jobs Community Development Block Grant, From INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS, pg. 1 and their cities–which have their own local which has been in place since the early • School Modernization process for determining which projects are 1970s and is considered to be a model for • Public Safety Jobs and Technology an infrastructure investment of needed for jobs and economic develop- effective delivery of federal funds. • Public Housing Modernization $96,638,419,313 that would be capable of ment–the United States Conference of • Water and Wastewater Infrastructure To view the entire report and individual producing an estimated 1,221,677 jobs in Mayors has accepted each city’s project • Amtrak city results, visit www.usmayors.org. calendar years 2009 and 2010. These are submittal. Hence, each Mayor and City is • Airport Technology the cumulative totals of projects, required responsible for its justification for putting funding, and jobs to be created that have Mayors have stressed that investing in these projects forward. been reported in the three surveys of cities MainStreet metropolitan economies, The mayors' report combines the cumula- Want to subscribe conducted by the Conference of Mayors. which comprise 90 percent of our gross tive totals of projects, funding and jobs domestic product and drive the national Mayors believe their plan responds to from the two surveys previously released to PA TIMES? economy, is the most direct path to President Obama’s goal of creating 2.5 by the Conference with this survey creating jobs and stimulating the business million jobs to spur the national economy. information. Projects were sent to the that can begin to reverse the current A 16-mayor delegation from the Conference of Mayors from cities in all economic downturn. Mayors say metro regions of the country and fall in ten Conference of Mayors, chaired by USCM infrastructure projects can start quickly different sectors: Vice President Greg Nickels of Seattle Click on PA TIMES because the funding for them can come met in Chicago recently with then • Community Development Block Grants directly to their cities through existing President-Elect Obama and his Senior www.aspanet.org • City Street/Metro Roads funding channels such as the Advisor Valerie Jarrett to discuss the plan. • Transit Advertise in PA TIMES PA TIMES Advertising: PA TIMES features several advertising avenues: Display Advertising is available to announce conferences, educational programs, publications, products, etc. and The Recruiter lists employment opportunities. ASPA reserves the right to edit text to conform with the layout and design of this newspaper. Editor-in-Chief: Antoinette Samuel, ASPA Executive Director Volume 32, Number 2 Display Advertising* Employment Advertising in The Recruiter** Editor: Christine Jewett McCrehin February 2009 Print Only Full page (10.2” x 13.75”) $1050 Editorial Board: Russell Williams (2004-09), chair; $1.45/word PA TIMES is a tabloid Half page vertical (5” x 13.75”) $660 $1.25/word (print only ad to run for 3 consecutive months) x 3 Timothy Clark (2008-10); Jonathan Justice (2003-11); Kathryn newspaper published 11 times a Half page horizontal (10.2” x 6.75”) $660 Print and Online Combo Kloby (2008-11); Saundra Reinke (2005-09); Michelle Sager (This charge is in addition to the $250 fee for online advertising) year by the American Society for Quarter page (5” x 6.75”) $440 (2008-10); William E. 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Contact Jeannie Jeffries at ©2009 American Society for jjefferies@aspanet.org. *Display advertising rates apply to advertiser-provided, camera-ready art. A $100 typesetting fee occurs for Public Administration ads that are submitted as text only or in an nonreproducable form. Job advertisements may not be Single Copies: of PA TIMeS are available for $1.50 each submitted as display advertising. 1301 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, (1-10) and 75¢ each (over 10). Contact Jeannie Jeffries Ste. 840, Washington, DC 20004 **All job advertisements placed in The Recruiter must be text only and are billed at a minimum of 200 at jjefferies@aspanet.org. (703) 209-0560 (phone) words. The Recruiter does not accept display advertising. All job advertisements must indicate that the Reprint Requests: Contact Christine Jewett McCrehin employers offer equal employment opportunity. (703) 991-4916 (fax) cjewett@aspanet.org. patimes@aspanet.org (e-mail) ASPA’s Advertising cancellation policy: Cancellations will be billed full price. Article Submission/Author Guidelines: Contact On the Internet: Send Display ads and insertion orders to: cjewett@aspanet.org Christine Jewett McCrehin at cjewett@aspanet.org. http://www.aspanet.org Send Recruiter ads and insertion orders to: recruiter@aspanet.org
  3. 3. AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION PA TIMES • FEBRUARY 2009 PAGE 3 Immigration: Issues Impacting Administration SPECIAL SECTION Local Immigration Policies Complicate Comprehensive Immigration Reform Efforts Nadia Rubaii-Barrett immigration, greater language and At one end of the continuum are those Issuing identification cards to anyone who cultural diversity among recent immigrant communities that have declared themselves wants one–including undocumented populations, and more divergent settle- a sanctuary for immigrants. Cities and immigrants–is a strategy that a small Seemingly everyone agrees on the need for ment patterns that extend outside of counties in more than 20 states have number of localities have adopted, most immigration reform. Democrats and traditional gateway cities combined to adopted policies that prioritize the human notably San Francisco, California, and Republicans, liberals and conservatives, place many local government officials in rights of individuals over their legal status. New Haven, Connecticut. These ID cards media pundits and scholars, those who a position where they could not wait any These policies prohibit local government have a photo and list the individual’s want more open borders and those who longer for the federal government to employees from identifying, reporting, or name, address, date of birth and a unique advocate more restrictive policies have all reform immigration policy. detaining immigrants or otherwise doing identifying number; notably, they do not identified shortcomings with current the work of federal immigration officials in indicate immigration status. federal policies and practices. While it was the absence of a warrant. not a central tenant of the Obama The ID cards are intended to benefit both Directly or indirectly they candidacy, the new president has expressed In sharp contrast, local ordinances in more the individuals and the community. support for comprehensive reform that [Obama Administration] will than a dozen states have adopted strong Individuals can use the cards to access reduces lengthy administrative backlogs anti-immigrant policies with aggressive city services and as proof of identity for have to respond to the and balances enforcement with an overhaul enforcement provisions. Officials in these opening bank accounts; in turn, the local of admission criteria and numerical limits communities express concerns about illegal government receives income from the fees tapestry of state and local to better reflect 21st century global politi- immigrants driving down wages and taking charged for the cards and is able to cal and economic realities. jobs from citizens, engaging in criminal immigration policies that document a more accurate population activity, overburdening public health In policy formulation the devil is in the count thereby making their communities have been adopted in the systems, and flaunting the rule of law by details, and immigration policy is no eligible for larger entitlement grants. entering or remaining in the country exception. There has been no shortage of intervening years while In many communities with large migrant illegally. Frustrated by inadequate federal immigration reform proposals, but or immigrant populations, local govern- enforcement, they have enacted policies crafting comprehensive policy changes Washington failed to act. ments collaborate with a network of intended to identify and drive out illegal that could secure sufficient bipartisan community support organizations to immigrants and to punish those who would support has proven to be politically address the needs and interests of new The challenges facing local governments infeasible in recent decades. provide them with housing or jobs. in responding to increasing numbers of arrivals through cultural and educational The election of President Obama along These local ordinances may impose fines immigrants have been exacerbated by activities, employment support, health with Democratic majorities in both the on landlords who rent to undocumented outdated federal policies, inconsistent services, and cultural competence House of Representatives and the Senate immigrants or deny business licenses to federal enforcement practices, and insuffi- training. Some communities have would appear to create a window of companies who employ them. They may cient redistribution of resources to local constructed, funded and/or operated day opportunity for successful passage of also prohibit the display of foreign flags governments. As towns, cities, villages labor centers or hiring halls, while others comprehensive reform. However, a number unless they are accompanied by U.S. and counties in all states have experienced have banned such facilities or the use of of recent changes regarding intergovern- flags, or encourage residents to report the challenges of immigration–both legal public funds to support the facilities. mental roles and responsibilities in the area their neighbors if they have suspicions and illegal–they have adopted a myriad of Some local governments have established immigration policy–specifically the about immigration status. Local officials local policies. Some local policies are their own agencies for immigration multitude of local policies that have been designed to protect immigrants from what are required to check immigration status services or immigrant relations; while enacted–will complicate this task. are perceived to be unfair federal laws before providing local services, and local other local governments have simply and assist them, regardless of their legal law enforcement are required to submit Immigration policy is widely recognized developed formal procedures for referring status, with assimilation and integration. the names of all persons arrested through to be a national government prerogative, immigrants to nonprofit and religious a federal database to determine citizenship but Washington has demonstrated an Other local policies vigorously seek to organizations for assistance. even in the absence of suspicion about inability to fully carry out these responsi- identify and remove those who lack immigration status. bilities. In the absence of effective federal In the current environment, neighboring proper documentation and are intended to policies many state and local governments communities often have strikingly differ- send a strong message to immigrants, In between these two extremes are a range have felt compelled to enact policies of ent policies regarding immigrants. Such particularly undocumented immigrants, of other local government policies. Many their own. Increasing rates and levels of inconsistencies make it difficult for that they are not welcome. local governments have stopped short of immigrants, both legal and undocu- adopting local immigration ordinances and mented, as well as businesses, both small have instead signed Memoranda of and large, whose activities may cross Understanding (MOUs) with the jurisdictional boundaries. These divergent Department of Homeland Security to local policies will also complicate the task receive immigration-related training and to of federal policy makers who seek to enforce immigration laws. Under these enact comprehensive immigration reform. federal 287(g) programs, local officials The MARCH 2009 PA TIMES may be authorized to interview inmates in As the Obama Administration works with city and county jails to determine probable special section is titled: congressional leaders to formulate new cause for violation of immigration laws immigration policies, they will do so and to begin the deportation process. within the complex and changing intergovernmental web of policies. Language barriers often create consider- Directly or indirectly they will have to able challenges for local governments respond to the tapestry of state and local dealing with new immigrant populations. immigration policies that have been The response of some local governments Diversity Revisited adopted in the intervening years while has been to adopt English-only policies, Washington failed to act. with or without corresponding investments in ESL or ESOL classes to help non- ASPA member Nadia Rubaii-Barrett is an English speakers improve their proficiency. associate professor and chair of the department of public administration in the Other local governments have provided College of Community and Public Affairs incentives to new and existing employees There is still space available for advertising and articles. at Binghamton University. email: to become bilingual or multilingual and nbarrett@binghamton.edu some have gone so far as to guarantee Deadline for both is FEBRUARY 20, 2009 non-English speakers the right to Contact: cjewett@aspanet.org access local services and programs in their native language as a way to facilitate greater and more meaningful participation in local government.
  4. 4. PAGE 4 PA TIMES • FEBRUARY 2009 AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Immigration: Issues Impacting Administration SPECIAL SECTION Illegal Medical Care and License Registration? David Milen emergency rooms in particular are losing sell insurance to anyone who does not have driver’s certificate, but this legislation has a validated state driver’s license. failed on numerous occasions. millions of dollars each year due to this increasing issue. The change in administration in The moral and ethical dilemma arises once There are several states that do not require Washington will certainly be confronted again when motorists are involved in an proving legal status (Utah, Michigan, Future Implications and Solutions with the pressing issues facing our nation: accident, there is no insurance coverage by Hawaii, and Maine to name a few) in As this crisis increases, both hospital and The economy, bailouts, jobless rates one party, and the burden then falls on the order to obtain a driver’s license. The public administrators will have made some climbing, and the illegal immigration motorist who has been covered by a possible values of allowing illegal aliens moral and ethical choices surrounding issues. Two of the areas of concern for company’s policy. The question arises the opportunity to obtain a license are illegal immigrants, budgets, and overall public administrators will be focusing on regarding life safety and payment issues. safer highways and lower insurance rates survival of the health care system. Many whether to provide health care benefits due to fewer accidents. Opponents for the may pose the question, “How can we fix It is quite possible for the benefit of life and license registrations to illegal legalization of this action feel it entices this?” It may be in the best interest of safety and monetary issues that illegal immigrants living in the United States. undocumented immigrants to enter the public administrators to look at what the aliens should be permitted to obtain country and cause further stress and follow-up care costs may be after initially There has been much discussion insurance on a vehicle. This assists pressures upon the system and highways. surrounding these topics at all levels of motorists along in the process of hospital government, but the government has been visits and repairs that may be necessary to Suggestions and Solutions Homeland Security estimates dealing with cost issues surrounding refurbish the vehicle that was damaged. The newly elected administration will medical care and treatment of illegal On the other hand, there is an issue with have much to address in the next four there are 22 million illegal aliens throughout the nation. Homeland having illegal aliens behind the wheel of a years. The issues and policies surrounding Security estimates there are 22 million motor vehicle without proper state identi- immigration will need to be positively aliens in the United States illegal aliens in the United States and fication or licensure from the Bureau of influenced by the US government and billions of dollars are being spent on both and billions of dollars are Motor Vehicles. public policy developers. A common medical care/treatment and license policy for immigration reform, issuing Licensed to Drive? being spent on both medical registration infringements. licenses, and permitting insurance Although in some states the opportunity purchases are foundations to build upon care/treatment and license Priority Issues to purchase insurance may be available for future considerations for all stakehold- and allowed, there may be issues ers involved. The US needs to lead by Medical Care registration infringements. surrounding an illegal alien applying for a example and create stability to an increas- There are federal laws that provide states driver’s license. The State of Illinois, for ing issue and ongoing issue. with incentives to provide Medicaid example, does not allow illegal aliens to coverage to illegal immigrants. Many treating the patient, and creating a policy have a license nor operate a motor vehicle ASPA member David Milen is interim hospitals in America are not able to whereby other countries would accept legally under the current laws. Attempts program director at the School of Public absorb the costs included in the treatment medical transfers for their own citizens have been made to pass legislation Policy and Administration at Walden and care of illegal immigrants. Many based on the treatments at the U.S. hospital. allowing illegal immigrants to obtain a University. email: David.Milen@ssfhs.org states and hospitals don’t check to see the It will take more than simple documenta- status of the patient (legal or illegal) tion and creation of public policy. The causing a strain on the system and forcing stakeholders that are involved in the many hospitals to close their doors due to system such as INS, families of those who the inability to sustain operations and lack were treated at the hospital, attorneys, and of finances. On the other hand, there are the foreign countries where the patient millions of legal immigrants and US may have traveled to the US. A common citizens that are not able to afford health Provost’s Fellowship at program and policy must be developed care coverage and must risk living that does not reflect such a variety of without these benefits. Florida Atlantic University acceptance or non-acceptance depending Some states are considering passing on state or region with the US. legislation to adopt a law allowing illegal Illegal Vehicle Insurance and Licensure immigrants to obtain health care coverage This $2,500 fellowship will be awarded to two and permit them to have necessary Vehicle Insurance of the leading applicants to the FAU doctoral operations, treatments, and procedures Another issue change advocates will have program for Fall 2009. To be eligible students done in hospitals. The concerns arise to address with policy and procedures is must apply for admission to the FAU Ph.D. when billions of dollars are being lost illegal aliens and vehicle insurance. The program in Public Administration. Fellowship within the health care industry, jobs are growing number of illegal aliens without is automatically renewable for a second year, being lost, and continual lack of available vehicle insurance, driving without proper facilities is becoming a pressing issue. and is on top of the normal doctoral fellowship identification, and becoming involved in which provides: motor vehicle accidents is increasing. Many emergency rooms are forced to close their doors due to the inability to There are some states, California, for $16,000 per year stipend afford the outlay of monies in an effort to example, that do not have a set policy or $22,000 in tuition and fees (approx. 90 provide medical treatment for illegal law in place indicating insurance percent of total) aliens. Most hospitals and facilities appear companies are not permitted to sell to have a budget set aside specifically for insurance to an illegal alien. Thus, the Florida Atlantic University the treatment of illegal immigrants, More information about the FAU Ph.D. pro- School of Public Administration opportunity exists for illegal aliens to have FAU/BCC Higher Education Complex however, the funds set aside for illegal gram, its faculty, and its emphases in Public motor vehicle insurance prior to getting 111 East Las Olas Boulevard immigrants are far above expectations and behind the wheel. On the hand, there are Policy, Organizational Studies, Budgeting & Fort Lauderdale, FL 33301 the available funding. Hospitals and many insurance companies who will not Finance, and Public Administration Theory & Phone: (954) 762-5650 Inquiry are available at: Fax: (954) 762-5673 E-mail: spa@fau.edu http://www.fau.edu/caupa/spa/phd/index.html To apply on-line, go on the Graduate College link at: http://wise.fau.edu/graduate/ Have you visited SCHOOL OF PUBLIC ASPA’s website lately? ADMINISTRATION www.aspanet.org
  5. 5. AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION PA TIMES • FEBRUARY 2009 PAGE 5 Immigration: Issues Impacting Administration SPECIAL SECTION Immigration’s Moral Challenge Christopher Daniel Meanwhile, social workers and public many beneficiaries of the DREAM Act states, by laws prohibiting unauthorized health professionals implement punitive would be Mexican-Americans. As the immigrants from obtaining licenses. Such directives that Congress imposed on English speaking products of U.S. school- laws have not eliminated states’ dependence The immigration conundrum is an immigrants in the mid-1990s. Following ing and poplar culture, many of those on those immigrants’ labor, nor have the extraordinarily multifaceted technical the law, professionals make care available youth have no memories of ever having measures obviated the need for those problem. Research organizations such as to immigrant children who are U.S. lived outside of the United States. workers to learn the rules of American the Migration Policy Institute Citizens while denying it to their slightly road. Instead, both immigrants and public (www.migrationpolicy.org/) publish high older siblings who are undocumented safety are harmed by the restrictions. quality studies and ASPA members can persons or Legal Permanent Residents. contribute expertise to on-going debates. The third challenge facing officials is the Just as the mid-twentieth The need for immigration reform also Economists acknowledge the contributions need for them to address expressions of presents ASPA with a moral challenge, century Black Civil Rights that immigrants, both legal and unautho- bigotry by U.S.-born people. Michigan however. Fortunately, this is not the first rized, make to America’s economy. State University scholars recently Movement led the nation time the United States have confronted Congress, however, has refused to create conducted an extensive study of how such difficulties. Both managers and ‘earned legalization’ arrangements for the Latino newcomers are received in rural through such a passage, scholars can learn a great deal by recall- unauthorized while failing to expand Indiana and Michigan. They found that ing past ethical struggles. avenues for legal immigration. almost all of the Latinos whom they today’s Immigrant Rights Congressional inaction occurs despite the interviewed, including some adults who Administrators sometimes confront gut- Movement seeks to fact that the need for foreign labor has long had spent their entire lives in the Midwest, wrenching dilemmas, situations in which been palpable. For decades there have not had received discriminatory messages. the institutions that they serve violate transform laws and attitudes. been enough U.S. citizens and legal Some were told “Go back to Mexico” fundamental human rights. With 20/20 immigrants available to meet the needs of while others were beaten by Anglo gangs. hindsight institutions flawed by racism or American agriculture, construction, janitor- ethnocentrism look grotesque. Managers Contemporary animosity is directed most ial services, hotels and restaurants. Instead Responding to their constituents’ thinking about apartheid, Jim Crow, or the strongly against Mexican immigrants, but of addressing those labor shortages in a prejudices, an anti-immigrant coalition Nazi era often take deep breaths and think it also affects others who are conflated humane and just manner, Congress has blocked passage of the DREAM Act in to themselves, “Thank heavens I didn’t with them. Anthropologist Leo Chavez expanded border enforcement, authorized late 2007. Senators opposed to the have to perform my job while upholding has recently documented that prejudicial construction of the ‘Great Wall of DREAM Act sent a powerful message to that system!” Unfortunately, when institu- stereotypes dominate contemporary mass Chihuahua,’ and quietly funded develop- immigrant youth that their individual tions are unjust, or worse, many people media discussions about immigration. A ment of an immigration gulag in the efforts and achievements do not matter working within them fail to perceive what xenophobic “Latino Threat Narrative” Southwest, a prison system capable of because other Americans perceive them to is happening. Unexamined prejudices simultaneously disparages undocumented holding 30,000 men, women and children. be ‘criminals’ not worthy of American squelch doubts, as does the deep-seated Mexican immigrants, U.S. born Mexican- futures. As they have in the past, unjust emotional stake that people, especially Comprehensive immigration bills are Americans, other Spanish speakers, and laws continue disillusioning young Americans, have in believing that the social complex, involving many contending people who simply happen to be Native people, pushing some of them into order around them is morally defensible. interests. However, other proposals American or mestizo in appearance. making unhealthy choices and then sometimes present legislators with simple, Current laws test peoples’ beliefs. Mexican bashing resonates because it has bringing children of their own into morally consequential choices. Consider, Idealistic individuals become Border deep roots. Widespread racism has been underclass cultures of despair. for example, the DREAM Act, a bill to Patrol officers to combat drug smuggling directed against Americans of Latin create earned legalization for immigrant This writer lives in central Kentucky, a and protect the nation from terrorists, but American origin since at least the 1840s youth who were brought into the U.S. as region whose blue-collar Latino many later burn out and leave the agency when the new states of Texas and children. By staying out of trouble with immigrant population has grown rapidly after realizing that their efforts are California denied suffrage and other rights the law for six years while successfully during the past twenty years. “Hispanics” primarily directed towards apprehending to their numerous Spanish-speaking completing two years of college or constituted 2.5 percent of the Bluegrass and incarcerating decent people whose inhabitants of mestizo and Native- military service those young people would state’s population in 2005, according to “crimes” are simply seeking to perform American ancestry. As late as the mid- be permitted to earn Legal Permanent the Census, but the group’s presence has America’s least desirable jobs, and/or twentieth century southwestern states Residence status. As a practical matter, been geographically uneven. Latino attempting to re-unite with loved ones. imposed de jure school segregation, immigrants have concentrated in places residential segregation, and anti- where their labor has been needed to miscegenation laws on Latinos. Today under gird expanding local economies, an restrictive immigration laws both reflect, arrangement that has disproportionately and also reinforce, public prejudices. affected some urban neighborhoods and Public Administration with an Announcing... Recognizing institutional racism can be small towns. Public officials and adminis- Attitude brings together some difficult, requiring people to critically trators in those communities, and of H. George Frederickson’s examine personal beliefs, history, and the most penetrating and thought- elsewhere, face three types of immigra- a new publication from ASPA operation of current laws. Although stress- provoking columns from the tion-related challenges. pages of PA TIMeS. In the ful to undertake, this process eventually First, public servants sometimes have book, Frederickson takes on the issues facing enables people to confront injustices and difficulty interacting effectively with Public today’s public administrators with the reestablish respect for themselves and their immigrant clients/constituents. Many intellectual integrity that established him as a communities. Just as the mid-twentieth public missions (education, law enforce- leader in the field. If there is something century Black Civil Rights Movement led Administration ment, health provision, tax collection, wrong or right with the way public policy is the nation through such a passage, today’s social work) cannot be accomplished being administered, Frederickson lets you Immigrant Rights Movement seeks to effectively without language know. Like his column, Public transform laws and attitudes. capabilities/accommodations and related Administration with an Attitude is easy to withan The degree to which the Immigrant Rights cultural competency. Both legal and read and jargon-free, and, of course, it is Movement achieves its objectives will often witty. unauthorized immigration contribute to determine how successful the nation is, this challenge, which is, however, transi- Students preparing for public service careers over the course of the next 30 years, in tory in character. Members of immigrant will benefit not only from the wisdom and integrating (assimilating and accepting) its second generations (including Mexican- insight in Public Administration with an rapidly growing non-white, foreign-born Americans) speak English and effectively Attitude, but from the pervading theme of the laboring class. For both moral and practi- come to terms with the national culture. honor and dignity of public service. cal reasons ASPA, and the practitioners Practicing public servants will enjoy the rich The second type of challenge that officials by H. George Frederickson and scholars whom it inspires, should use of examples, the telling of great public experience stems from people not possess- support that endeavor. administration stories, and especially the ing legal status. Sometimes individuals descriptions of public administration heroes Christopher Daniel teaches MPA classes are literally “undocumented”, making it Availableforadoptioninclasses. and heroic moments. at Kentucky State University. In 2005 he difficult or impossible for street level www.aspanet.org This book is a lot more interesting than a co-founded “educating Latinos for bureaucrats to verify their identities. On spreadsheet (...and more accurate)! Kentucky’s Future,” a small service, other occasions anti-immigrant laws professional networking and advocacy complicate public service. Public Administration with an Attitude organization. email: approx. 220 pages — $14.95 softcover For example, efforts to promote traffic christopher.daniel@kysu.edu © 2005 American Society for Public Administration safety by training and licensing drivers are undermined in Kentucky, and in many other

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