Ch. 7 Making Arguments

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Ch. 7 Making Arguments

  1. 1. Making Arguments Chapter 7
  2. 2. Making Arguments <ul><li>Rhetoric - the art or study of using language effectively and persuasively. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Making Arguments <ul><li>Building Blocks of an Argument: </li></ul><ul><li>The Claim </li></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Warrant </li></ul>
  4. 4. Making Arguments <ul><li>The Claim - Also called a proposition, answers the question &quot;What are you trying to prove?&quot;  It can sometimes appear as a thesis statement for your essay.  </li></ul>
  5. 5. Making Arguments <ul><li>Three Types of Claims: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Claims of Fact - assert that a condition has existed, exists, or will exist, and are based on fact or data the audience will accept as being objectively verifiable.  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  6. 6. Making Arguments <ul><li>Three Types of Claims: </li></ul><ul><li>2. Claims of Value - attempt to prove that some things are more or less desirable than others.   </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  7. 7. Making Arguments <ul><li>Three Types of Claims: </li></ul><ul><li>3. Claims of Policy - assert that specific policies should be instituted as solutions to problems.  The expression should, must, or ought to usually appears in the statement. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  8. 8. Making Arguments <ul><li>What makes a good claim? </li></ul><ul><li>Not obvious </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging </li></ul><ul><li>Not overly vague </li></ul><ul><li>Logical </li></ul><ul><li>Debatable </li></ul>
  9. 9. Making Arguments <ul><li>Support - consists of the materials used by the arguer to convince an audience that her claim is sound.  </li></ul>
  10. 10. Making Arguments <ul><li>Warrant ? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Making Arguments <ul><li>Warrant - is an inference or an assumption, or a belief or principle that is taken for granted.  In argument, it bridges the gap between the support and the claim.  As an arguer, your warrant is a belief you can assume that you and your audience share. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Making Arguments - Example <ul><li>Claim: Adoption of a strictly vegetarian diet leads to healthier and longer life. </li></ul><ul><li>Support: The authors of Becoming a Vegetarian Family say so. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Warrant? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Making Arguments - Example <ul><li>Claim: Adoption of a strictly vegetarian diet leads to healthier and longer life. </li></ul><ul><li>Support: The authors of Becoming a Vegetarian Family say so. </li></ul><ul><li>Warrant: The authors of Becoming a Vegetarian Family are reliable sources of information on diet. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Making Arguments – Example 2 <ul><li>Claim: You should support an increase in federal taxes to pay for educational programs for disadvantaged youths. </li></ul><ul><li>Support: Increased funding will help build programs that can help disadvantaged youths get a better education, and stay out of crime. What is the Warrant? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Making Arguments – Example 2 <ul><li>Claim: You should support an increase in federal taxes to pay for educational programs for disadvantaged youths. </li></ul><ul><li>Support: Increased funding will help build programs that can help disadvantaged youths get a better education, and stay out of crime. Warrant: It's your moral and ethical responsibility as a citizen to help future generations. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Assignment for Tuesday <ul><li>Read Ch. 7 pgs. 210-211 and </li></ul><ul><li>234-244. </li></ul><ul><li>Work on writing a preliminary draft of your argument. </li></ul>

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