TORC-3 Test of Reading Comprehension- Third Edition


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  • First revised in 1986 to improve clinical usefulness and technical adequacy. No content changes were made.  Sentence Sequencing, an optional subtest, was made a required subtest.    In 2008 the test was revised to contain fewer subtests Relational Vocabulary Sentence Completion Paragraph Construction Text Comprehension Contextual Fluency and updated vocabulary. 
  • If for some reason items are given above the ceiling, any items that are passed are scored as incorrect.  Failure to apply the ceiling conventions in scoring will invalidate the results.
  • TORC-3 Test of Reading Comprehension- Third Edition

    1. 1. TORC-3 Test of Reading Comprehension- Third Edition Presentation by: Ashley Baginski & Emily Egan Fall 2010 Assessment in Special Education Dr. Barese
    2. 2. General Information <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title: Test of Reading Comprehension(TORC)   3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authors: Virgina L. Brown, Donald D. Hammil & J. Lee Wiederholt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revisions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1986- no content changes. Sentence Sequencing became a required subtest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2008-fewer subtests, updated vocabulary. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publication History: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1978, 1986, 1995 by Pro-Ed, Inc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TORC-4: 2008 by Pearson, Inc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age Range: 7-0 to 17-11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Languages available: English </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Brown, Hammil, and              Wiederholt,  1995) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Purposes of the TORC-3 <ul><ul><li>Purposes:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To determine a student's reading comprehension relative to a normative group. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To determine how well students understand written languange. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a basis for comparing performance in reading comprehension with other abilities. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investigate behaviors related to reading comprehension. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assist researchers in the study of the nature of reading comprehension.            </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>                                                         (Brown et al.,1995) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Results of the TORC-3 can be used to Identify: <ul><li>1. Students whose scores are significantly below those of their peers and who might need interventions designed to improve reading comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>2. To determine areas of strengths and weaknesses across reading comprehension abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>3. To document overall progress in reading development as a consequence of intervention programs. </li></ul><ul><li>4. To serve as a measure for research efforts designed to investigate reading comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>                                                                 (Brown et al.,1995) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Content of TORC-3 <ul><ul><li>8 Subtests: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  General Vocabulary -measures understanding of related sets of vocab items. 25 items, 5-10 mins.  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Syntactic Similarities -measures understanding of meaningfully similar but syntactically different sentence structures. 20 items, 5-15 mins. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paragraph Reading -measures ability to answer questions related to story-like paragraphs. 6 paragraphs with 5 questions each, 10-15 mins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sentence Sequencing -measures ability to order sentences into plausible paragraphs. 10 items, 10-15 mins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5-7.  Content Area Vocabularies: Math, Social Studies, Science -measures understanding of words associated w/each subject 25 items per subject, 5-10 mins. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>       8. Reading the Directions of School Work -measures understanding of </li></ul><ul><li>             written directions, commonly found in schoolwork. 25 items, 5-15  </li></ul><ul><li>           mins.                                                                               </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>                                                                                      (Brown, et al, 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul>
    6. 6. Administration <ul><ul><li>  TORC-3 includes:  1 Examiner's Manuel, 1 Student Test Booklet, 1 Answer Sheet and 1 Profile/Examiner Record Form. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Method: Can administer one-on-one, to small groups, or to entire classes of students.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Timing: This test has no time limits.  The student may spend as much time as they wish on each subtest. General time ranges spend on one of the subtests are between 5-15 minutes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing Time for Complete Administration: The average student takes one hour to complete the entire test. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>                                                               (Brown, et al., 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    7. 7. Administration Continued <ul><li>Environment:  Test may be administered in a classroom setting. Ideal setting is in a comfortable and quiet room. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Special Equipment:  No special equipment is required, just a pencil with an eraser. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Administrator Freedom: If need be, the students' responses may be modified as long as the modifications do not affect the content of the subtests. For example, a child who shows difficulty making the Xs as an answer, may respond verbally. </li></ul><ul><li>                                                 (Brown, et al., 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>                                       </li></ul><ul><li>                                             </li></ul>
    8. 8. Administration Cont'd <ul><ul><li>Teacher Support/Preperation Required:  Administrators should become familiar with all subtests- content, directions, etc. in order for the administration to go smoothly. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of Administration: If the administrator is familiar with the directions, script, and content of subtests, it should be an easy/ successful administration. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>                                                     (Brown, et al., 1995) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Standardization <ul><ul><li>Norms: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>950 students in grades 2-12 in 19 states were tested in the fall of 1993 and the winter of 1994. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>students with disabilities in general ed classrooms were included in the normative sample. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demographic characteristics of the normative sample: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gender </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>residence-rural or urban </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  race </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>geographic area-Northeast, North Central, South, West </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ethnicity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>disability status </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>age </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>                                                                                                                             (Brown, et al., 1995) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Reliability and Validity <ul><li>Reliability: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative to 3 sources of test error(content, time sampling & scorer differences), a high degree of reliability was calculated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reliability coefficients must be .80 or higher to be considered reliable. In all subtests the coefficent is well above .80. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Validity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high content, criteron- related and contruct validity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>empirically demonstrated by item anaylisis procedures and high correlation w/other accepted reading tests(The California Achievement Test, The Peabody Individual Achievement Test.)   (Brown, et al., 1995) </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Method of Scoring <ul><ul><li>Raw scores for each individual subtest are calculated by hand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For the general vocabulary, syntactic similarities, paragraph reading, math, social studies & science vocabulary and reading the directions of school work subtests, each correct answer is given a score of 1 and an incorrect answer is given a score of 0.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For the sentence sequencing subtest a score of 0,2,3,4,5 is possible for each item.  For example, a student would receive 2 points if two sentences have been correctly sequenced together. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>                                                             (Brown, et al., 1995) </li></ul>
    12. 12. Ceilings <ul><ul><li>On all of the subtests, except for Reading the Directions of Schoolwork, readers begin with the first item and are tested until a ceiling is reached or until all the items have been answered(no basal). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On General Vocab, Syntactic Similarities, Math, Social Studies & Science Vocab a ceiling is reached when three items in any five-item sequence have been answered incorrectly.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On Paragraph Reading, a ceiling is reached when two or more questions for any story are answered incorrectly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On Sentence Sequencing the ceiling is any two items in a row with scores of 3 or lower. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On Reading the Directions of Schoolwork, the examiner should attempt to administer all 25 items (no ceiling). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>                                                               (Brown, et al., 1995) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Raw Scores <ul><ul><li>The raw scores themselves are not very useful because the total number of points varies from one subtest to another.  For example, a raw score of 10 on one subtest may be average, while the same score on another subtest may be above average. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For test interpretation purposes grade & age equivalents, percentiles and standard scores should be used. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>                                                             (Brown, et al., 1995) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Age & Grade Equivalents and Percentiles <ul><li>Age & Grade Equivalents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>indicate the reading comprehension grade level and  reading comprehension age level that corresponds to a raw score made by a student. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw scores are converted to age and grade equivalents using a chart provided in  appendix 3. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Percentiles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Examiners locate the student's raw score and the corressponding percentile is found using Tables A-O in Appendix 1. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>             (Brown, et al., 1995) </li></ul>
    15. 15. Subtest Standard Scores <ul><ul><li>Provide the clearest indication of a person's subtest performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TORC-3 subtest scores are constructed so that the mean is always 10 and the standard deviation is 3. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A standard score on one subtest may be compared meaningfully with a standard score on any other subtest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A standard score of: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>17-20:very superior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15-16: superior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>13-14: above average </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  8-12: average  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6-7: below average </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4-5: poor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  1-3:very poor                     (Brown, et al., 1995) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Format <ul><ul><li>Written Responses:   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The majority of the test questions are answered by simply placing an X mark over the multiple choice answers of A-D. Subtest 4, sentence sequencing, requires the student to write the letter A-D in the correct order. Subtest 8 requires the student to write out the answer to the questions asked. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal responses: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depending on student needs, if student is unable to mark an X in the test booklet, they are able to verbally state their answers and the administrator will fill it out for them. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-verbal responses:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are no non-verbal responses. All recorded answers are either written or verbally stated. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>                                                               (Brown, et al., 1995) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Communication of Outcomes <ul><ul><li>The TORC has been widely reviewed and has received positive feedback on the theoretical model and  statistical characteristics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some negative critiques of the test were that it failed to describe the characteristics of the normative sample in regards to ethnicity, race and disabling condition.  These critiques were addressed and corrected in the TORC-3. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  The authors remind administers that test results must always be considered as one piece of information among data from several sources when used in making decides about a student. TESTS DO NOT DIAGNOSE!  They show a performance level at a given time, in a particular situation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing the score results are on a need to know basis. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>                                                       (Brown, et al., 1995) </li></ul>
    18. 18. References <ul><li>Brown, V. L., Hammill, Donald, D., & Wiederholt, J. L.                          </li></ul><ul><li>             (1995).   Test of reading comprehension third edition . Austin ,Texas, Pro-Ed, </li></ul><ul><li>              Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Misulis, K.E. (1989). Test review: test of reading          </li></ul><ul><li>           comprehension (TORC)- revised edition. Journal of      </li></ul><ul><li>           Reading, 33, 228-229. </li></ul><ul><li>Poteet, J.A. (1989).  Review of test of reading  </li></ul><ul><li>           comprehension. Journal of Reading , 34, 850-854. </li></ul><ul><li>Salviam J., and Ysseldyke, J. (2010) Assessment in Special Education and Inclusive  </li></ul><ul><li>           Edition., (11th ed.) Boston, MA, Houghton Mifflin Company. </li></ul><ul><li>Tierney, R.J. (1989).  Review of the test or reading comprehension.   The Tenth  </li></ul><ul><li>           Mental Measurements Yearbook (pp. 854-855). Lincoln: The University of  </li></ul><ul><li>           Nebraska Press. </li></ul>