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Direct Instruction: Methods for Closure and Evaluation


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Direct Instruction: Methods for Closure and Evaluation

  1. 1. Direct Instruction: Methods for Closure and Evaluation Kellie Delmonico Emily Egan Susan Gunther
  2. 2. In the last 24 hours, if you have... <ul><li>  </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Closure? <ul><ul><li>Closure in a lesson is provided when the teacher is ready to begin the next lesson or activity in the school day and wants to 'tie the bow' on the previous lesson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closure brings any lesson to a satisfying finish both cognitively and aesthetically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a Direct Instruction lesson, closure will occur after the independent practice period and before instructions are given for the next activity </li></ul></ul>Chapter 4 - Direct Instruction
  4. 4. How Should I Approach Closure? <ul><ul><li>The teacher should give a signal for attention, then ask for a quick review of what was learned during the lesson. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While the teacher can provide the review, it is ideal for the students to summarize or comment on what was accomplished during the lesson. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers can highlight students' metacognitive abilities by asking questions that not only reflect content concerns but also reinforce the value of the lesson: </li></ul></ul>Chapter 4 - Direct Instruction
  5. 5. Student Reflection <ul><li>WHAT </li></ul><ul><li>did you learn in today's lesson </li></ul><ul><li>that you did not know yesterday? </li></ul><ul><li>WHY </li></ul><ul><li>is that learning important to you? </li></ul><ul><li>Some teachers complete closure by previewing </li></ul><ul><li>what will be happening in class the next day. </li></ul>Chapter 4 - Direct Instruction
  6. 6. What is Assessment and Why do we need it? <ul><ul><li>Educational assessment is the process of documenting in measurable terms knowledge and skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It determines whether or not goals and objectives are being met. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessments should bring about benefits for students either in direct services to the student or in improved quality of educational programs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessments should be reliable, valid, fair and  age and linguistically appropriate . </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Assessment & Evaluation <ul><li>Formative </li></ul><ul><li>(Daily Successes) </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher: </li></ul><ul><li>Checks student work each day and offers corrective instruction as necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Student: </li></ul><ul><li>Complete independent work at or above a given level of proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Summative </li></ul><ul><li>(Mastery) </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher: </li></ul><ul><li>Checks student work </li></ul><ul><li>at the end of each unit </li></ul><ul><li>of instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Student: </li></ul><ul><li>demonstrate knowledge and application of concepts and skills at or above a given level of proficiency </li></ul>
  8. 8. Types of Assessment <ul><ul><li>Standardized Assessment : state-mandated standardized tests.  Some examples include: SAT, ACT, Stanford Achievement Test, TerraNova, LSAT, GMAT, GRE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative or Authentic Assessment : usually designed by the teacher to gauge the level of student understanding. Some examples include: portfolios, journals, performance tasks, interviews, essays, self  and peer evaluations.   </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Formative Assessments <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criteria and goal setting:  establish and define quality work together; determine what should be included in criteria for success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations:  assist teachers in gathering evidence of student learning to inform instructional planning; this evidence can be recorded and used as feedback about their learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questioning strategies:  should be embedded in lesson/unit planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self and peer assessment:  helps create a learning community within a classroom; students who can reflect while engaged in metacognitive thinking are involved in their learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student record keeping:  helps students better understand their own learning as evidence by their classroom work; this process engages students as well as allows them to see where they started and the progress they're making towards the learning goal </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Formative Assessments (continued) <ul><ul><li>Formative assessments takes place during the lesson and provides the teacher with information regarding how the learning objectives of a given activity are being reached. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It provides valuable information as to what modifications need to be made while the learning is happening . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Below is a clip that demonstrates formative assessment.  Note how the students are directly involved in the formative assessment process .  These students are highly engaged and act as resources for their peers.  The teacher is also providing much descriptive feedback . </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>District benchmark or interim assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End-of-unit or chapter tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End-of-term or semester exams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scores that are used for accountability for schools (AYP) and students (report card grades) </li></ul></ul>Summative Assessments The key is to think of summative assessments as a means to gauge, at a particular point in time, student learning relative to content standards
  12. 12. Balancing Assessment <ul><ul><li>As teachers gather information/data about student learning, several catergories may be included </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to better understand student learning, teachers need to consider information about the products (paper or otherwise) students create and tests they take , observational notes , and reflections on the communication that occurs between teacher and student or among students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When a comprehensive assessment program at the classroom level balances formative and summative student learning/achievement information, a clear picture emerges of where a student is relative to learning targets and standards </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The More We (They) Know... <ul><li>The more we know </li></ul><ul><li>about individual students   </li></ul><ul><li>as they engage in the learning process, </li></ul><ul><li>the better we can adjust instruction </li></ul><ul><li>to ensure that all students continue </li></ul><ul><li>to achieve by moving forward </li></ul><ul><li>in their learning. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Your turn! <ul><li>Use your whiteboards to answer the following: </li></ul><ul><li>1.  The purpose of closing a lesson is: </li></ul><ul><li>     a.) To help &quot;cement&quot; the key ideas of the lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>     b.) To foreshadow or to check for foundational skills </li></ul><ul><li>           for the next lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>     c.) a and b. </li></ul><ul><li>     d.) To use as a filler when you have extra time. </li></ul><ul><li>Correct! The answer is C!   </li></ul><ul><li>2. At the elementary level,  </li></ul><ul><li>     a.) Formative assessments are more important than summative  </li></ul><ul><li>          assessments. </li></ul><ul><li>     b.) Formative are just as important as summative assessments. </li></ul><ul><li>     c.) Summative assessments are more important than formative  </li></ul><ul><li>          assessments. </li></ul><ul><li>Correct! The answer is B! </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>3. Which statement is false? </li></ul><ul><li>     a.) Like the rest of the lesson, the closure portion of a DI     </li></ul><ul><li>         lesson is also teacher directed. </li></ul><ul><li>     b.) Closure in a DI lesson only addresses lower cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>         such as knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>     c.) Students can do their own formative assessments by </li></ul><ul><li>         self-monitoring by keeping records of their progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Correct! The answer is B! </li></ul><ul><li>4. Which of the following is a formative assessment? </li></ul><ul><li>     a.) Ten division problems for homework. </li></ul><ul><li>     b.) The &quot;L&quot; in a KWL chart. </li></ul><ul><li>     c.) A student's oral retelling of a story he just listened to in a  </li></ul><ul><li>          listening center. </li></ul><ul><li>Correct! Tricky - the answer is any of the above! </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ticket out the door <ul><li>On your whiteboards: </li></ul><ul><li>Write what you think is the  most important benefit of formative assessments.  </li></ul><ul><li>Hand in your whiteboards on the way out of the room. </li></ul>