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Final presentation

  1. 1. 21st Century Enlightenment Scholars Project Australia: East or West?
  2. 2. East or West? Questions or issues you raised <ul><li>geographically </li></ul><ul><li>culturally </li></ul><ul><li>relations with other countries </li></ul><ul><li>immigration </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations </li></ul><ul><li>where do you want to go to the future </li></ul><ul><li>‘ our future career direction’ </li></ul><ul><li>Literature – </li></ul><ul><li>Manga/anime </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic novels </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion – influences </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs – different faiths </li></ul><ul><li>Sports around the world </li></ul><ul><li>food – traditions/diversity </li></ul><ul><li>politics – are we with America – who are we aligned with? </li></ul><ul><li>Music – influences </li></ul><ul><li>Film – Bollywood influences </li></ul><ul><li>Life-styles </li></ul><ul><li>Position of women in East/West </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes/prejudices </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>‘ what is the central part of the world ? </li></ul><ul><li>What about indigenous Australians? </li></ul><ul><li>Physical environmen t </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine – east/west </li></ul><ul><li>Nationality </li></ul><ul><li>Rich and poor – haves and have nots </li></ul><ul><li>Maps – perspective – the way aust is positioned </li></ul>
  3. 3. Age of Enlightenment <ul><li>The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is an overarching term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century , in which Reason was advocated as the primary source and basis of authority. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Where did it start? <ul><li>The movement was developed in Europe and spread its influence throughout Europe, including Russia and Scandinavia, the new United States of America and even to Australia which some people hoped would be a new utopia. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is Enlightenment? “Enlightenment is man’s emergence from his self-incurred immaturity.” (Immanuel Kant, 1784)
  6. 6. “ Sapere aude”! – Dare to be wise! <ul><li>Immaturity is self-inflicted not from a lack of understanding, but from the lack of courage to use one’s reason, intellect, and wisdom without the guidance of another. Our fear of thinking for ourselves. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Immanuel Kant on why people remain unenlightened <ul><li>‘ The majority of people are lazy cowards who gladly remain in this immature state for their entire lives.’ Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Simply because ‘immaturity is convenient.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it convenient? Because “guardians” such as books, doctors, spiritual advisors, and anyone whom we can pay to think for us, does the heavy mental lifting and tells us how to think. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Kant (continued ) <ul><li>For “the largest part of mankind (including the entire fair sex)”, not only is thinking difficult, but it is dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>we are fearful of taking that first step into thinking for ourselves. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Enlightenment principles and attitudes <ul><li>The American Declaration of Independence, the United States Bill of Rights and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen were motivated by &quot;Enlightenment&quot; principles </li></ul>
  10. 10. Excerpt from the French Declaration of the Rights of Man <ul><li>All the citizens, being equal in [the eyes of the law], are equally admissible to all public dignities, places, and employments, according to their capacity and without distinction other than that of their virtues and of their talents.&quot; </li></ul>
  11. 11. Who was left out of this declaration? <ul><li>The Declaration, as originally understood, recognized most rights as belonging only to males; </li></ul><ul><li>the declaration did not revoke the institution of slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Women were finally given these rights with the adoption of the 1946 Constitution of the French Fourth Republic </li></ul>
  12. 12. American Declaration of Independence <ul><li>We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ongoing influence of the Enlightenment <ul><li>the Enlightenment represents the basis for modern ideas of liberalism against superstition and intolerance. </li></ul><ul><li>eg the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights (Dec 1948) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Declaration of Human Rights <ul><li>Article 1 </li></ul><ul><li>All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Article 2 <ul><li>Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty </li></ul>
  16. 16. Critiques of The Enlightenment <ul><li>Valuing of reason at the expense of emotions and feelings - a very instrumental view of science (eg application of ‘rationality’ for destructive purposes) </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusion of particular groups of people from its principles (eg women, slaves) </li></ul><ul><li>Universal assumptions </li></ul>
  17. 17. So what’s the enlightenment got to do with 21st century Australia? <ul><li>It’s the basis of our democratic system of government </li></ul><ul><li>It’s the basis of our promotion of freedom, tolerance and inclusiveness </li></ul><ul><li>It’s the basis of our system of universal education </li></ul>
  18. 18. You are modern Australia
  19. 19. Year 11 MLC girls - Where do you come from? <ul><li>Australia </li></ul><ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>The United States of America </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li>Phillipines </li></ul><ul><li>Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>New Zealand </li></ul>
  20. 20. What do you believe?
  21. 21. The religious affiliations of Year 11 at MLC <ul><li>Anglican </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhist </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic </li></ul><ul><li>Coptic </li></ul><ul><li>Christian </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Orthodox </li></ul><ul><li>Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>Seventh Day Adventist </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim </li></ul><ul><li>Jehova’s Witness </li></ul><ul><li>Methodist </li></ul><ul><li>Church of England </li></ul><ul><li>Sikh </li></ul><ul><li>Presbyterian </li></ul><ul><li>Uniting Church </li></ul><ul><li>Agnostic </li></ul>
  22. 22. The languages you speak <ul><li>English, Mandarin, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Bahasa Indonesian, French, Arabic, Cantonese. Vietnamese, Spanish, Urdu </li></ul>
  23. 23. Women as global citizens in the 21st century Young Australians can consider and participate in our debates about Australian citizenship. This year marks the 60th anniversary of the UN Declaration of Human Rights. An American woman, Eleanor Roosevelt, was largely responsible for the declaration. An Australian woman, Jesse Street, was also directly involved in the seminal document . (Susan Ryan AO)
  24. 24. We are all involved in a unique experience in the history of the human race <ul><li>Sex discrimination has been illegal for the past 25 years </li></ul><ul><li>Women are not officially barred from any occupations, professions, coures of study or training. </li></ul><ul><li>Range of lifestyles wider than ever before </li></ul><ul><li>You may marry,remain single, have children, or remain without children </li></ul><ul><li>You will live longer than at any time in recorded history </li></ul>
  25. 25. Women as global citizens <ul><li>Economic independence can be enjoyed by most women </li></ul><ul><li>You can see women in political leadership, at the top of all the professions, a woman who is CEO of a major bank, and the first female Governor-General (Quentin Bryce). This is the top role available to an Australian citizen under our constitution </li></ul>
  26. 26. Challenges ahead <ul><li>We live in one world - climate change and International terrorism, as well as the current global financial crisis have surely made us all aware of that </li></ul>
  27. 27. Australia - the future? <ul><li>What will Australia expect of its citizens in 50 years time? </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural intelligence will be a core skill in the 21st century. What is it exactly? </li></ul><ul><li>What will YOU do? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Your generation is Australia’s future
  29. 29. Putting it all together Maths - how is maths a way of thinking and not just a set of formulae? Is there beauty in maths? How? The Arts - how does the study of art, music and dance help explore the impact of different traditions & influences? Will we continue to see more of a cultural fusion in these areas? LOTE - how can the study of different languages give an insight into different cultures? Is it just a matter of words? Science/Design/PDH/IT/Design - How do these subjects demonstrate that ideas are not restricted to borders within a country? Does Science have all the answers for the future? Humanities - why is it important to understand our past, the beliefs & values of different cultures and the current relationships between countries in our region? How do you think the world stage will look in 20 years time? English - what issues has your literature study raised about cultural differences? Whose voices were expressed in the texts? How do you think students in Asian countries would respond to these texts?