Language Comparison Turkish/English by Mary LaRue ESL 502 Wilkes University
Features of the two languagesTurkish belongs to the English belongs to theAltaic language group. Indo-European language group.Turkish uses the Roman English uses the Romanalphabet and spelling is alphabet and spelling iscompletely phonetic. not completely phonetic.Turkish has vowel English does not haveharmony. vowel harmony.
Features of the two languagesAll Turkish verbs are regular in Many common English verbs areall tenses. irregular in the present, past and/or participle form.Turkish word order is SOV. English word order is SVO.Turkish is agglutinative. English is isolating.
Features of the two languagesTurkish uses one pronoun for 3rd English requires gender in theperson singular. 3rd person singular pronoun. He is going She is going It is going
Features of the two languagesTurkish uses gerunds in English uses gerunds asmany verbal nouns or inconstructions including continuous/progressivesimple past. verbal constructions only.
Features of the two languagesTurkish often omits the Standard English nevercopula “to be.” omits the copula “to be.”Turkish does not have English has many initialinitial /sk/ or /sp/. /sk/ and /sp/ sounds.Turkish does not have English often requiresdefinite and indefinite definite and indefinitearticles in the articles in thenominative. nominative.
Errors in English made by Turkishstudent in beginning ESLComing six months. I came here six months ago. (overuse of gerund construction for present perfect and all past tenses – this was the most common error made by my student)
Errors in English made by Turkishstudent in beginning ESLGrandfather here. My grandfather is here.(omission of copula)
Errors in English made by Turkishstudent in beginning ESL:pronunciationsıkool school(the student later self-corrected)
Implications for teaching:When teaching ELLs whose L1 is Turkish, I believe four mainareas need to be addressed:(1) English pronunciation and, by extension, Englishorthography;(2) understanding and using the definite and indefinite articles;(3) English verb forms; and(4) understanding and using prepositions and idioms.